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Periodic trends 6 3

Periodic Trends 6.3


Periodic trends

6.3

Periodic Trends

  • Sodium chloride (table salt) produced the geometric pattern in the photograph. Such a pattern can be used to calculate the position of nuclei in a solid. You will learn how properties such as atomic size are related to the location of elements in the periodic table.


Trends in atomic size

6.3

Trends in Atomic Size

  • Trends in Atomic Size

    • What are the trends among the elements for atomic size?


Trends in atomic size1

6.3

Trends in Atomic Size

  • The atomic radius is one half of the distance between the nuclei of two atoms of the same element when the atoms are joined.


Trends in atomic size2

6.3

Trends in Atomic Size

  • Group and Periodic Trends in Atomic Size

    • In general, atomic size increases from top to bottom within a group and decreases from left to right across a period.


Trends in atomic size3

6.3

Trends in Atomic Size


Trends in atomic size4

6.3

Trends in Atomic Size


Periodic trends 6 3

6.3

Ions

  • Ions

    • How do ions form?


Periodic trends 6 3

6.3

Ions

  • Positive and negative ions form when electrons are transferred between atoms.


Periodic trends 6 3

6.3

Ions

  • Positive and negative ions form when electrons are transferred between atoms.


Periodic trends 6 3

6.3

Ions

  • Some compounds are composed of particles called ions.

    • An ion is an atom or group of atoms that has a positive or negative charge.

    • A cation is an ion with a positive charge.

    • An anion is an ion with a negative charge.


Periodic trends 6 3

Ions

  • Animation 7

  • Discover the ways that atoms of elements combine to form compounds.


Trends in ionization energy

6.3

Trends in Ionization Energy

  • Trends in Ionization Energy

    • What are the trends among the elements for first ionization energy, ionic size, and electronegativity?


Trends in ionization energy1

6.3

Trends in Ionization Energy

  • The energy required to remove an electron from an atom is called ionization energy.

    • The energy required to remove the first electron from an atom is called the first ionization energy.

    • The energy required to remove an electron from an ion with a 1+ charge is called the second ionization energy.


Trends in ionization energy2

6.3

Trends in Ionization Energy

  • Group and Periodic Trends in Ionization Energy

    • First ionization energy tends to decrease from top to bottom within a group and increase from left to right across a period.


Trends in ionization energy3

6.3

Trends in Ionization Energy


Trends in ionization energy4

6.3

Trends in Ionization Energy


Trends in ionization energy5

6.3

Trends in Ionization Energy


Trends in ionic size

6.3

Trends in Ionic Size

  • Trends in Ionic Size

    • During reactions between metals and nonmetals, metal atoms tend to lose electrons, and nonmetal atoms tend to gain electrons. The transfer has a predictable effect on the size of the ions that form.


Trends in ionic size1

6.3

Trends in Ionic Size

  • Cations are always smaller than the atoms from which they form. Anions are always larger than the atoms from which they form.


Trends in ionic size2

6.3

Trends in Ionic Size

  • Relative Sizes of Some Atoms and Ions


Trends in ionic size3

6.3

Trends in Ionic Size

  • Trends in Ionic Size

Size generally increases


Trends in electronegativity

6.3

Trends in Electronegativity

  • Trends in Electronegativity

    • Electronegativity is the ability of an atom of an element to attract electrons when the atom is in a compound.

      • In general, electronegativity values decrease from top to bottom within a group. For representative elements, the values tend to increase from left to right across a period.


Trends in electronegativity1

6.3

Trends in Electronegativity

  • Representative Elements in Groups 1A through 7A


Summary of trends

6.3

Summary of Trends

  • Summary of Trends

    • What is the underlying cause of periodic trends?


Summary of trends1

6.3

Summary of Trends

  • The trends that exist among these properties can be explained by variations in atomic structure.


Summary of trends2

6.3

Summary of Trends

Atomic Size

Size of cations

Ionic size

Shielding

Electronegativity

Size of anions

Nuclear Charge

Ionization energy

Increases

Decreases

Constant

Decreases

Increases


Section assessment

Section Assessment

  • 6.3


6 3 section quiz

6.3 Section Quiz

  • 1. Which of the following sequences is correct for atomic size?

    • Mg > Al > S

    • Li > Na > K

    • F > N > B

    • F > Cl > Br


6 3 section quiz1

6.3 Section Quiz

  • 2. Metals tend to

    • gain electrons to form cations.

    • gain electrons to form anions.

    • lose electrons to form anions.

    • lose electrons to form cations.


6 3 section quiz2

6.3 Section Quiz

  • 3. Which of the following is the most electronegative?

    • Cl

    • Se

    • Na

    • I


End of show

END OF SHOW


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