Learning theories and baseball
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Learning Theories and Baseball. Theoretical Frameworks for Designing Instructional Materials. Amy Carter ET 709, Spring 2011. A caveat to the analogy.

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Learning theories and baseball

Learning Theories and Baseball

Theoretical Frameworks for Designing Instructional Materials

Amy Carter

ET 709, Spring 2011


A caveat to the analogy

A caveat to the analogy

The following baseball analogy is a “loose fit” to explain learning theories. In the game of baseball, the defensive team’s goal is to prevent the batter from being successful. In this analogy, the pitcher and other players do not necessarily represent such an opposing force. In the following slides, the pitcher and opposing team represent the instructor and the challenges of the learning task, while the batter and his journey around the bases represent the learner his learning.


Learning theories and baseball

BEHAVIORISM

COGNITIVISM

CONSTRUCTIVISM

Three Traditional Theories

INSTRUCTOR

INSTRUCTION

LEARNER

Designs environment that elicits desired behaviors and extinguishes undesirable behaviors

Environment shapes behavior; demonstrates learning through observable behaviors

Contiguity and reinforcement central to learning process; learning = observable change in behaviors

http://itunes.apple.com/us/app/abc-tracer-alphabet-flashcard/id324616399?mt=8

Organize instruction in ways that learners can make sense of ideas and fit them into existing cognitive structures

Learner must make sense of prior knowledge; memory system is an active and organized processor; learns by solving problems

Use of advance organizers (http://www.mrscassel.com/helpful_handouts.htm#Poetry_&_Literary_Analysis_Organizers) ; learning through “discovery”; learning = meaningful when related to existing cognitive structures.

Learner constructs meaning by making sense of experience; learns actively through dialog and collaboration.

Active practice in real environments (http://www.nmun.org/index.html ); learning through interactions and experience.

Provides experiences that induce cognitive conflict, encouraging learners to develop new knowledge schemes that are better adapted to experience.


Learning theories and baseball

Cognitive Load Theory (CTL)

Owner: John Sweller

Manager: E. Fective Designer

STRIKES: Extraneous cognitive load caused by inappropriate instructional design.

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Split attention effect – Attention is split between multiple sources of visual information that are all essential for understanding;

Redundancy effect – multiple sources of information presented when only one source is sufficient

NON-EXAMPLE: http://www.msnbc.msn.com/id/37517080/ns/disaster_in_the_gulf/

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CTL HOME

2nd Base: Germane cognitive load: “effective” cognitive load caused by effortful learning resulting in schema construction.

Hitting the ball: Intrinsic cognitive load: natural complexity of task

BASE COACH: Central executives to memory: SCHEMAS where there is prior learning or direct instructional guidance when no schema is available.

1st Base: Effective instruction consists of utilizing multiple streams of working memory: visuo/spatial and phonological; may use modality effect.

Element interactivity

Batter: Learner has a large long-term memory store with learning organized into SCHEMAS. Capacity and duration of working memory is limited. Rehearsal and familiarity make working memory limitations less critical.

HOMERUN! = Learning occurs when all elements of information can be processed simultaneously in working memory; Learners develop fluency


Learning theories and baseball

Cognitive Theory of Multimedia Learning (CTML)

Owner: Richard E. Mayer

Manager: E. Fective Designer

STRIKES: Lack of structure and guidance in instruction.

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Errors may occur:

If material lacks structure, learner will not be able to build necessary integrated model.

If message lacks guidance for learner, learner may be overwhelmed.

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CTML HOME

2nd Base: Learner must engage in 5 cognitive processes: selecting relevant words, selecting relevant images, organizing words into verbal model, organizing images into pictorial model, and integrating representations with prior knowledge.

Multimedia presentation: communication of words and pictures

3rd Base: Active learning occurs when relevant learning material is selected, organized, & integrated with existing knowledge. Learner may make connections with prior knowledge.

1st Base: 3 memory stores: sensory, working, and long-term memory

Forms of representation

Batter: Learner possesses dual-learning channels, has limited processing capacity, and must actively process information for learning to occur.

HOMERUN! = Learning occurs when all elements for understanding are integrated and transferred to other learning situations; learning can be assessed by tests of retention and transfer. Basic knowledge structures include: process, comparison, generalization, classification, and enumeration.


Learning theories and baseball

STRIKES: Poor sequencing (avoid text then picture), redundancy (specific and general) poor structure mapping (inappropriate pictures), superficial processing, poor cognitive economy .

Integrated Model of Text and Picture Comprehension (ITPC)

Owner: Wolfgang Schnotz

Manager: E. Fective Designer

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Errors may occur when designers fall victim to “temptation to add irrelevant bells and whistles to multimedia environments […] Less can be more.”

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ITPC HOME

2nd Base: Conditions for multimedia effect: coherence (semantic relatedness) & contiguity (high proximity of text and pictures over space and time)

Multimedia effect: Students learn better from text and pictures rather than text alone.

1st Base: Material is represented in two ways: verbal (descriptive) and visual (depictive) but cognitive structures can perceive information with other sensory modalities (i.e. verbal information can be visual if printed or auditory if spoken)

3rd Base: Verbal and pictorial material are integrated in working memory. Learners understand material and construct multiple mental representations.

Forms of representation

Batter: Learner perceives information in multiple sensory channels; has a working memory that has various stores: visual, auditory, propositional, & spatial mental model. Learner has low prior knowledge but sufficient cognitive ability.

HOMERUN! = Comprehension depends on the kind of information presented and the method of presentation. Focus of ITPC is on level of presentation and level of sensory modalities.


Learning theories and baseball

Four Component Instructional Design Model (4C-ID)

Owner: Merriënboer & Kester

Manager: E. Fective Designer

STRIKES: Concentration on performing tasks in isolation rather than on the interactions between task performance

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Limitations of this theory include:

constraints (manpower), task requirements (necessary materials), and target group characteristics.

Failure to provide guidelines for development, implementation, and evaluation steps of ADDIE (focus is on analysis and design).

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4C-ID HOME

2nd Base: Component 3: Procedural information (instructions and demonstrations); as learners master material procedures fade away (“fading”)

Hitting the ball: Component 1: Authentic learning tasks (worked-out examples)

3rd Base: Component 4: Part-task practice; strengthening – schemata get stronger when they each time they are successfully applied.

1st Base: Component 2: Supportive information: systematic approaches to problem solving (SAPs) (modeling and feedback)

Environment: goal-effective, efficient, & appealing; instructor uses various multimedia principals for each component

Batter: Learner must integrate and coordinate aspects of real-life task performance; learner’s knowledge is stored in schemata; working memory is limited and operates in dual channels; long-term memory is unlimited and made up of cognitive schemata

HOMERUN! = Learning occurs when schemata are constructed (new), embellished (existing), or automated through induction (generalization and discrimination) or elaboration (integration).


Learning theories and baseball

Universal Design for Learning (UDL)

Owner: Mr. CAST

Manager: E. Fective Designer

STRIKES: Barriers that prevent learning.

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Errors:

Inflexible “one-size-fits-all” curricula

UDL HOME

2nd Base: Effective instruction provides multiple means of action and expression (physical, communicative, and executive)

Hitting the ball: UDL curriculum offer learners equal opportunities to learn; effective, flexible instruction

3rd Base: Effective instruction provides multiple means of engagement (options recruit interest, sustain effort, and support self-regulation).

1st Base: Effective instruction provides multiple means of representation, providing options for perception, language, mathematical expression, symbols, and comprehension.

Goals, methods, materials, and assessments

Batter: Learner is not “average” – he/she is affected and motivated differently by varying backgrounds, motivations, and interests.

HOMERUN! = “Expert learners are 1) strategic, skillful, and goal-directed, 2) knowledgeable, and 3) purposeful and motivated to learn more.”

EXAMPLE Instruction: http://bookbuilder.cast.org/view.php?op=model&book=10953&page=1


Learning theories and baseball

Amy Carter’s Experience (ACE)

Owner: Amy Carter

Manager: My Best Instructors

STRIKES: Barriers that prevent learning: attitude, lack of confidence, etc.

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Errors: Losing my “rose-colored” focus through my humanist perceptions.

ACE HOME

2nd Base: Learning networks – “Communities of practice” (Lave and Wenger) – Career, Continuing Education, and Personal Learning

Hitting the ball: Learning tasks

3rd Base: Environmental influences that shape, supplement, and sometimes inhibit my learning. Social cognitivist learning by observation and application.

1st Base: My background – a set of “fixed” experiences that shapes and colors my perceptions

Lenses of experience: responsibilities, motivations, needs, desires, etc.

ME: Intrinsically motivated learner; critical of my own performance; prior experiences are vitally significant factors to current and future learning endeavors.

HOMERUN! = My most meaningful learning is gained through and anchored in meaningful experience (Ausubel) and gleaned from environments that are valuable and important to me.


Learning theories and baseball

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