Chapter 12 Personality Theories and Assessment

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I. Definition of Personality. The sum total of the typical ways of acting, thinking, and feeling It makes each person different than othersA. Trait TheoryDescribing the Consistencies of PersonalityThere are 17,000 words in English to describe peopleTraits: relatively enduring patterns of behavi

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Chapter 12 Personality Theories and Assessment

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1. Chapter 12 Personality Theories and Assessment

2. I. Definition of Personality The sum total of the typical ways of acting, thinking, and feeling It makes each person different than others A. Trait Theory Describing the Consistencies of Personality There are 17,000 words in English to describe people Traits: relatively enduring patterns of behavior More concerned with describing the traits, than exploring where they came from

3. A. Trait Theory cont. 1. Allportís Personality Trait Theory Motivation traits related to our values were the most important Find out what people value to predict future behavior Traits could be ranked Cardinal, central, and secondary Few people possess cardinal traits, they dominate lives

4. A. Trait Theory cont. 2. Five-Factor Model of Personality Many tests measure the five traits (pg. 460) Proven valid by testing and research a. Neuroticism b. Extraversion c. Openness d. Agreeableness e. Conscientiousness

5. A. Trait Theory cont. 3. Validation of Personality Traits Many studies: examples People with low extraversion scores are introverts People who score high are extraverts The limbic system functions differently for each type 4. Human Diversity: Personality and Culture Do the five-factors carry over to other cultures? They do show up in all cultures with minor variations Does individualism or collectivism affect personality? Collectivistic people tend to be friendly, have close feelings, and are respectful Individualistic feel proud, superior, and self-centered usually Some traits are found in other cultures that are not in the five-factors China, life satisfaction

6. II. Psychoanalytical Theory Sigmund Freud The origin of the personality lies in the balance of the id, ego, and superego Developed his theory from his association with Bertha Pappenheim and Dr. Breuer (pg. 464) A. Freudís Mind: Three Levels of Consciousness Conscious mind Present awareness Preconscious mind Contains information not presently conscious, but can be retrieved easily Unconscious mind Part of the mind we are never directly aware of Storehouse of primitive motives and of repressed memories and emotions Repression Unpleasant information put into unconsciousness

7. B. Freudís Mind: Id, Ego, and Superego 1. Id: The Selfish Beast The only part of the mind an infant has Has life instinct (libido) and death instincts Libido contained motives Hunger, protection, and sexual desire Sex and aggression were the most important The id constantly wants sexual pleasure and to hurt others Pleasure Principle The id seeks immediate pleasure and to avoid pain, no matter the costs to others Has no connection with reality The id satisfies the needs through primary process thinking Mental images of the desire

8. B. Freudís Mind: Id, Ego, and Superego cont. 2. Ego: The Executive of Personality Formed when the id has to find realistic ways to satisfy needs Operates on the Reality Principle Holds the id in place until safe and realistic means are found It is the middle man between the id and superego 3. Superego: The Conscience and Ego Ideal The id and ego have no morals Opposes and restricts the desire of the id and ego Parents help create the superego Ego ideal: the perfect conduct of the superego Children develop it and become better behaved

9. C. Displacement and Identification Sometimes the ego must find substitutes for the id and superego Ex. Desire to kick oneís dad or brother Called displacement Sublimation is the best kind of displacement A socially desirable goal is substituted for a socially harmful goal Ex. Playing sports Identification Tendency to base oneís identity and actions on people who are successful in gaining satisfactions from life Ex. Kids behave like the adults they identify with Key in developing the superego

10. D. Growing Up: The Stages of Development Our personalities are formed as we pass through a series of development stages Excessive punishment or reward in a stage can lead to oneís personality being stuck or fixated in a stage Stage result from the shifting of sexually libido energy from one part of the body to another Erogenous zones: a part of the body that releases sexual energy when stimulated Psychosexual stages: developmental periods in which the id finds different sources of satisfaction

11. D. Growing Up: The Stages of Development cont. 1. Oral Stage (Birth to 1 Year) Pleasure from sucking and swallowing Oral dependent personality: still seeking pleasure orally (smoking, overeatingÖetc) Oral aggressive personality: seek pleasure by being verbally hostile to others 2. Anal Stage (1-3 Years) Toilet training Can get pleasure from defecating immediately, but get punished Or can wait and do it on the toilet Anal retentive: very neat, stubborn, and compulsive Anal expulsive: cruel, disorderly, and messy

12. D. Growing Up: The Stages of Development cont. 3. Phallic Stage (3-6 Years) The genitals are the primary source of pleasure Kids enjoy touching them They often develop a sexual attraction to the parent of the opposite sex We are not aware of these urges because they are in the unconscious mind It is evident as an intense-love for the parent Boys: Oedipus Complex Unconscious wish to kill their dad and sexually possess their mothers Can lead to a castration anxiety if boys fear their dad knows what is going on Soon the boy identifies with father for crucial development of the superego Girls: Electra Complex One of Freudís most controversial doctrines Can lead to penis envy Girls must accept their inferiority and identify with their mother Phallic Personality: selfish, impulsive, and lacking genuine feelings for others

13. D. Growing Up: The Stages of Development cont. 4. Latency Stage (6-11 Years) Sexual interest is relatively inactive Sexual energy is sublimated in other activities 5. Genital Stage (11 Years on) Starts with puberty Renewed interest in this area of the body Self-gratification is common Sexual and romantic interest in others is a central motive This energy is sublimated into marriage, jobs, and child rearing

14. E. Theories Derived from Psychoanalysis Freudís theories are no longer practiced widely They have been revised and still are used Most agree Freud put too much emphasis on the sexual side of the mind 1. Carl Jung A friend and colleague of Freud Questioned his emphasis on sexual motivation Unconscious mind also had positive motives All important elements of the mind came in opposites Our personality is how much we choose of one side Extraversion vs. Introversion Social vs. unsocial people Personal Unconscious Motives, conflicts, and information that are repressed because they are threatening to the individual Collective Unconscious The content of the unconscious mind with which all humans are born Ex. The phallic symbol throughout history

15. E. Theories Derived from Psychoanalysis cont. 2. Alfred Adler Also a colleague of Freud The primary struggle in personality development was feelings of inferiority Sexual and violent impulses werenít as important Kids are less powerful and dependent on adults People must outgrow their inferiority Parents played a vital role in development He developed preschools to teach his ideas People must develop their social interest Need for loving, helpful relationships Peopleís lives are also governed by their goals Even if their unrealistic

16. E. Theories Derived from Psychoanalysis cont. 3. Karen Horney The most influential of the psychoanalyst She agreed humans unconscious conflicts were the source of human misery Conflicts rose from inadequate child-rearing tactics, not inborn motives Causes anxious and insecure kids/adults Disagreed with Freudís view of women Rejected the notion of penis envy She thought women may envy the power and prestige associated with men in society

17. III. Social Learning Theory Albert Bandura Focus on learning in the formation of personalities Personalities are learned from society A. Role of Learning in Personality People have good personalities if they have good models to follow and are reinforced for appropriate behavior Bandura states people determine their own actions and emphasize cognition in personality as well Reciprocal Determination An individualís behavior and social learning environment continually influence on another Ex. How a friendly person views the world

18. B. Role of Cognition in Personality Self-Efficacy: the perception of being capable of achieving oneís goals People who have this expend more effort and have more success These ideas are learned from others, but these thoughts influence our thoughts Self-Regulation: the process of cognitively reinforcing and punishing our own behavior, depending on whether it meets our personal standards Sense of pride and shame Similar to Freud

19. C. Situationism and Interactionism Peopleís moods often depend on the situation Skinner thought behavior was determined by situations, not traits inside of them Social learning theorists suggest a happy medium Person x situation interactionism: behavior is influenced by a combination of both the person and the situation Blends cognitive, motivational, and emotional elements with a setting People often pick situations that suit them Some are influenced by situations than others

20. IV. Humanistic Theory Maslow and Rogers Humans possess an innate tendency to improve and to determine their lives through the decisions they make A. Inner-Directedness and Subjectivity Inner-Directedness: a force that all people possess that internally leads them to grow and improve People usually make good choices Can lose this ability of people live with critical, rejecting people Subjective Reality: each personís unique perception that helps organized our personalities

21. B. The Self-Concept Our subjective perception of who we are and what we are like Developed by Carl Rogers It is learned through interactions with others Self: the person one thinks one is Ideal Self: the person one wishes one were Big discrepancies can cause problems (sadness and anxiety) Inaccurate self-concepts is an issue We can deny awareness to many feelings and experiences because of teachings Conditions of worth: the standards used by others or ourselves in judging our worth Stereotypes affect people

22. C. Self-Actualization The seldom reached full result of the inner-directed drive of humans to grow, improve, and use their potential to the fullest Reach a high level of moral development, care for others than oneís self Open and honest with the courage to act on convictions, even if it is unpopular They have an accurate, rather than romanticized view of people and life Life is always challenging and fresh Lower motives must be met before pursuing these goals Einstein, Eleanor Roosevelt, and Ludwig van Beethoven Peak experiences: intensely moving experiences in which a person feels one with the world

23. D. Humanism Compared with Classic Psychoanalysis and Social Learning Theory They differ in the basic nature of humans (chart, pg. 463). Psychoanalyst: evil at birth and society gives people morals Humanist: good at birth and society corrupts people Social Learning: humans are neutral with the potential to learn good and bad E. Contemporary Merging of the Major Theories of Personality There are a lot of ideas being blended in other theories Ex. Self-concept in psychoanalysis

24. V. Personality Assessment Taking a measure of the person A. Interviews and Observational Models The most widely used methods Very subjective, multiple psychologists may have multiple interpretations Can be stressful to patients People may act different Observations view people in their natural state

25. B. Projective Personality Tests Ambiguous stimuli designed to reveal the contents of the clientís unconscious mind Thematic Apperception Test: make up stories about a picture Inkblot tests C. Objective Personality Tests Tests a number of written questions about a person Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI) Scores are based on the norms Most of the tests you took are in this category D. Evaluation of Personality Tests Not psychologists agree the tests are accurate Studies confirm most tests fail to predict behavior consistently

26. Personality Tests Links Personality Test #1 Personality Test #2 Personality Test #3 Personality Disorder Test Coping Skills Egoist vs. Altruist Test Optimism vs. Pessimism Test Longevity Test Test Harvey Psychology Wiki

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