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Category 1: an Introduction to second Language Learning and Teaching. Leah Palmer ELL Director, Martha ’ s Vineyard Public Schools [email protected] Jennifer Hannon ESL teacher, 6-12, Wellesley Public Schools [email protected] Foundational Knowledge of Cat 1:.

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Category 1 an introduction to second language learning and teaching

Category 1: an Introduction to second Language Learning and Teaching

Leah Palmer

ELL Director, Martha’s Vineyard Public Schools

[email protected]

Jennifer Hannon

ESL teacher, 6-12, Wellesley Public Schools

[email protected]

Foundational knowledge of cat 1
Foundational Knowledge of Cat 1:

  • Key factors affecting second language acquisition

  • Implications of these factors on classroom organization and instruction

  • Implications of cultural difference for classroom organization and instruction

  • Organization, content, and Can-do descriptors of WiDA (World class Instructional Design and Assessment)

Skills observable outcomes
Skills/Observable Outcomes:

  • By the end of this training, you will be able to analyze your classroom as a site for second language acquisition and make appropriate adjustments to benefits learning for ELLs.

  • By the end of this training, you will be able to use knowledge of factors affecting second language acquisition to determine areas where additional support may be needed for ELLs.

Day 1 agenda second language acquisition and cultural differences
Day 1 Agenda, Second Language Acquisition and Cultural Differences

January 21, 2012

  • Introductions/ house keeping

  • Background Information: Why are we here?

  • Assignment, p.25

  • Icebreaker- BINGO

  • Module 1: p.8-12

    • Key Factors Affecting Second Language Acquisition

  • Lunch 12:30 to 1

  • Module 2: p.13-24

    • What is Culture?

    • Sociolinguistic Competence

  • Review of assignment, p.25

  • 3-2-1 Ticket to Leave, p. 30

Pdps and credit
PDPs and Credit Differences

  • 15 PDPs (12 in class, 3 out of class)

  • Cambridge College graduate credit: 1, $50

  • For CC credit:

    • Assignment #3: Reading and reflection questions

      • “Language and Culture”, Chapter 4 from Teaching Culture Perspectives and Practice by Patrick Moran

      • 4-1 is required, p. 41-42

      • Choose one: 4.2, p. 43 OR 4.3, p.44, OR 4.4, p. 45-46

      • Due March 3rd

      • Email reflection questions to Leah Palmer, [email protected]

Why are we here
Why are we here? Differences

Limited english proficiency lep ell
Limited English Differencesproficiency (LEP/ELL)

  • The MA Department of Elementary and Secondary Education (MDESE) defines students of limited English proficiency as students “whose first language is a language other than English and who is unable to perform ordinary classroom work in English”.


Acronyms Differences

Acronyms… Acronyms


Glossary of terms in participant binder appendix additional resources
Glossary of Terms, In Participant Binder Appendix, additional resources

  • DESE =

  • ELD=

  • ELL=

  • ESL=

  • FLEP=

  • High Incidence=

  • Integration=

  • LEP=

  • Low Incidence=

  • L1=

  • L2=

  • MEPA=

  • MELA-O=

  • SEI=

  • SIFE=

  • SLA=

  • TBE=

  • WiDA=

Information about english language learners demographics
Information about English Language Learners: Demographics additional resources

  • America’s public schools enroll about 5 million English language learners (ELLs) – twice the number from just 15 years ago, and that number is expected to double again by 2015.

  • English language learners are the fastest growing group of students in the United States today. (

Massachusetts demographics
Massachusetts additional resources’ demographics

Lep students in massachusetts schools
LEP Students in Massachusetts Schools additional resources

  • 2008-2009, Massachusetts Public Schools reported 57,002 limited English proficient (LEP) students

    • Total Ma students:958,910, 5.9% ELLs: approx. 57,000

  • 2010-2011, Ma public schools reported 67,000ELL

    • Total Ma students: 955,563, 7.1% ELLs: approx. 67,000

  • Between 2003 and 2009, increase of ELL enrollment: approx. 8,000

  • Between 2009 and 2011, increase of ELL enrollment: approx. 10,000

  • * Out of 955,563 students enrolled in MA public schools, 155,756 are native speakers of a language other than English (16.3%).

Lep students in massachusetts schools march 2005 over 112 different languages represented

LEP Students in Massachusetts Schools-March additional resources2005, over 112 different languages represented

Lep students in massachusetts schools 2009

LEP Students in Massachusetts Schools-2009 additional resources

Language %

Spanish 54.2%

Portuguese 7.6%

Khmer 5.2%

Creole (Haitian) 4.2%

Vietnamese 3.9%

Chinese 3.4%

Cape Verdean 3.9%

Russian 1.5%

Arabic 1.7%

Martha s vineyard
Martha additional resources’s Vineyard

Martha s vineyard public schools demographics
Martha additional resources’s Vineyard Public Schools: demographics

  • Total ELLs: 79 students, 3.9%

  • Edgartown: 24, 7.2%

  • Tisbury: 21, 6.6%

  • Oak Bluffs: 18, 4.7%

  • West Tisbury: 1, .4%

  • Chilmark:0

  • MVRHS: 15, 2.2%

Percentage of ells per school
Percentage of ELLs per School additional resources

Years in us
Years additional resourcesin US

Edgartown ells
Edgartown ELLs additional resources

Grade levels of ells per elementary school
Grade Levels of ELLs per additional resourceselementary school

First language of ells in mv
First additional resourcesLanguage of ELLs in MV

2002 chapter 71a structured english immersion law
2002-Chapter 71A additional resourcesStructured English Immersion Law

  • Passed into law in November 2002 as a result of a election ballot question (“Question 2”)

  • 76% of Massachusetts voted for this law that voted in a state level program for ELLs.

  • Created a state mandated model for Limited English Proficient students known as SEI (limiting flexibility NCLB offers by MA state law)

  • Allows transitional bilingual education with waivers, at the secondary level

  • Later, the legislature voted to allow Two-Way Bilingual Programs

Implications of question 2 ch 71a
Implications of Question 2/Ch. 71A: additional resources

  • All districts now have to create an SEI program if there is even ONE ELL identified

  • It’s a full-day program

  • ESL “tutorials” or part-time “services” , working with aides or paraprofessionals alone, are not enough-Need to have both ESL and sheltered content classrooms

  • How SEI is structured will look different in low and high incidence districts (and within schools) but every district with an ELL has to create an SEI program. This requires strategic planning.

Use of native language
Use of Native Language additional resources

  • General Principles

  • The following are general principles that apply to Sheltered English Immersion Programs:

    • English language acquisition and content instruction are the primary goals of Sheltered English Instruction.

    • Native language may be used as a tool to accelerate the learning of English.

    • Instruction must be comprehensible. The use of native language is one approach to making certain all input is comprehensible.

What is a sheltered english immersion program
What is a Sheltered English Immersion Program? additional resources


  • ELD, English language development program, or ESL, English as a second language instruction, is explicit and direct instruction about the English language intended to promote English language acquisition by LEP students and to help them “catch up” to their peers who are proficient in English. It includes learning outcomes in speaking, listening, reading, and writing.

  • Sheltered content instruction is instruction that includes approaches, strategies and methodology that makes the content of the lesson more comprehensible to students who are not yet proficient in English. It includes learning outcomes in speaking, listening, reading, writing, and in content specific areas.

Skills and qualifications of sei classroom teachers
Skills and Qualifications of SEI Classroom Teachers additional resources

  • Category One: Second Language Learning and Teaching

  • Category Two: Sheltered Content Instruction

    • Strategy building

    • Curriculum and Lesson Planning.

  • **Category Three: Assessment of Speaking and Learning (MELA-O)

  • Category Four: Teaching of Reading and Writing to LEP students

Assignment http learningandteachingells wikispaces com
Assignment, additional resources

  • P.25-29 of Participant Manual

  • Interview an ELL in your school

  • OR

  • Tape record a lesson you teach

  • You will not have to pass in your work, but you will need to bring it on the 28th.

  • This assignment will start our discussions next week.

Bingo additional resources

Activity 2 autobiography of a second language learner
Activity 2: additional resourcesAutobiography of a SecondLanguage Learner

p. 9

Affective filter what prevents understanding communication
Affective Filter: additional resourcesWhat prevents understanding/communication?

Affective filter
Affective Filter additional resources

  • Stephen Krashen hypothesizes thatthere is an imaginary wall that is placed between  a learner and language input. This is called the Affective Filter. If the filter is on, the learner is blocking out input and output. No language can be received or produced

Steven krashen
Steven Krashen additional resources

Affective filter1
Affective Filter additional resources

  • Krashen indicates that anxiety, self-esteem, and motivation are the three major variables that have an impact on the Affective Filter. The filter turns on when anxiety is high, self-esteem is low, or motivation is low.

  • Think-Pair-Share

    • Turn to a neighbor and share teacher and students behaviors and instructional activities that keep the affective filter turned off…

Activity 3 factors affecting outcomes
Activity 3 additional resources Factors Affecting Outcomes

  • Think about the factors that have made a difference in your language autobiography outcomes.

  • Were these factors positive or negative?

    • Positive Negative

    • Culture No connection to the lang

    • Confidence Lack of confidence

    • survival No motivation

p. 9

Analytical framework classrooms as sites activity 4a
Analytical Framework: Classrooms as Sites additional resourcesActivity 4a.

Situational Factors

Situational Factors



Language Processing

Variable Language Output

Individual Characteristics

p. 10

Situational factors
Situational Factors additional resources

Factors that influence both the nature of the linguistic input and strategies of the learner.

Examples include: classroom environment, cafeteria & doctor’s office.

Communication task:explaining, asking, requesting

Language input
Language Input additional resources

Linguistic input includes the language of input (e.g. L1 or L2)

Communication tasks: academic discussion, vocabulary, abstract concepts, longer sentence structures and the amount of input.

Situation + input = learning environment

Language processing
Language Processing additional resources

The second language learner uses cognitive and linguistic strategies to internalize new knowledge in L2.

Production strategies are the means by which the learner utilizes his or her L1 and existing L2 knowledge

The second language learner relies on their L1 when they lack resources in their L2

Variable language output
Variable Language Output additional resources

Language Production differs for all students.

The learner is still trying to figure out what rules govern the use of alternate forms.

This type of variability seems to be most common among beginning learners, and may be entirely absent among the more advanced.

Discussion of the analytical framework with a video activity 4b
Discussion of the Analytical additional resourcesFramework with a Video Activity 4b:

You will be discussing one of these questions in your small group

  • Identify various situational factors and explain how these situational factors can influence the kind and amount of second language input in a classroom.

    2. Think about individual characteristics of a student or students and how these can influence the kind and amount of second language input they receive in a classroom.

    3. Identify various situational factors and explain how these can influence the kind and amount of second language output by students in a classroom.

    4.Think about individual characteristics of a student or students and how these can influence the kind and amount of their second language output in a classroom.

p. 11

Individual reflective writing journal activity 5 p 12
Individual Reflective additional resourcesWriting, Journal Activity 5, p.12:

Think about the following:

  • What or who is the source of most of the second language input in your classroom?

  • During approximately what percentage of a typical class do students receive input? (listening and reading)

  • During approximately what percentage of a typical class do students produce language output? (speaking and writing)

p. 12

Word splash culture
Word Splash: CULTURE additional resources

Small group activity 6 p 14
Small group, Activity 6: p. 14 additional resources

  • Write your own definition of culture.

Culture as an iceberg

Culture as an Iceberg additional resources

Surface Culture:

*Fine arts *Storytelling *Drumming *Subsistence *Dancing *Games *Cooking *Dress

Deep Culture:

*Weather forecasting *Animal behavior *Navigation skills *Observation skills *Pattern recognition *Seasonal changes/cycles *Edible plants/medical knowledge *Constellations*Language terminology *Counting, measurement, estimation *Clothing design/insulation *Tools/technology*Building design/materials *Transportation *Genealogy *Waste disposal *Fire *Hunting *Weapons


Some principles of culture activity 7 p 16 http www youtube com watch v 57kw6ro8rcs feature relate
Some Principles of CULTURE: additional resources Activity 7, p. 16

  • Culture can be defined in many ways.

  • There are no universally accepted definitions of culture.

  • Differentiating between culture and personal variables is not always easy.

  • Culture is portable and is transmitted from generation to generation.

Activity 8a p 17 school groups
Activity 8a, p.17, school groups p.17



What are the rules and norms that guide your classroom behavior in your school? What do your students need to know?

How were these rules taught and by whom?

How were they agreed upon?

How are they cooperatively maintained?

Are these rules universal within US culture or schools?

How may expected behaviors vary according to activity in your classroom?

  • What are the rules and norms that guide classroom behavior in your school? What do your students need to know?

  • How were these rules taught and by whom?

  • How were they agreed upon?

  • Are these rules universal within US culture or schools?

  • How may expected behaviors vary according to activity in your classroom?

p.18 p.17

  • Thus, if the children understand and learn the appropriate expected behaviors for different classroom contexts (for example, a lesson in taking a test, individual or group activities, or recess), communication and interaction between the teacher and student should increase.

    • Dilworth, M.E. (1992)

Journal activity 8b p 18 your perspective
Journal: Activity 8b, p.18- your perspective p.17

  • Think about a personal experience in which you had to understand and learn the appropriate expected behaviors for different classroom contexts as you navigate through your own educational experience.

  • What difficulties did you experience and what helped you negotiate the changes in expectations?

Questions to ponder
Questions to Ponder…. p.17

  • Students don’t usually have choices about their classroom/school environment. How can we help them?

  • What do we have control over that can help them?

“We take it(culture) for granted, we rarely think about it, and assume that our worldview is merely the human viewpoint.”

Carr-Ruffino, N. (1996)

Reflection school groups activity 8c p 19
Reflection: school groups p.17Activity 8C, p.19

  • 3 things a newcomer should know in order to function successfully in your school? Would students identify the same 3?

Reflect on Scenario and on the rules of communication that are in play, Think, write, pair, shareActivity 9a, p. 20

  • What is going on here?

  • Summarize each participant’s point of view.

  • What cultural differences in communication rules might be at play here?

Art of crossing cultures communication breakdown activity 9b p 21
Art of Crossing Cultures: are in play, COMMUNICATION BREAKDOWNActivity 9b, p.21

Socio type vs stereotype
Socio-type vs. Stereotype steps: p.21

  • “some” vs. “all”

  • A sociotype is observed BUT acknowledged that not everyone will have the same world view.

An example of cultural implications
An example of Cultural Implications steps: p.21

Luck and fate

Determine future,

Not own control

Listen and obey,

Not question

Not challenge

Work towards group


Not individual


High value on

Family life

Parents may be indulgent,

Not push towards

Independence and


Discourse Style:

Parents do not verbalize ongoing events

Adults do not ask children to voice


Adults do not ask children to foretell

or repeat facts

De-emphasis on actions and event


Parents are parents not teachers

Directions are given one step versus multistep

Eye contact

Reflection turn and talk
Reflection, Turn and Talk: steps: p.21

  • Think about the families you work with.

  • Does this breakdown sometimes exist?

  • What can we do to prevent the communication breakdown?

Activity 10 developing sociolinguistic competence
Activity 10 steps: p.21: Developing Sociolinguistic Competence

Write about yourself and your family and not about your experiences with other cultures unless they directly involve a family member.

2. What were the rules of communication you were taught to use? Who taught you and how?

3. Write down the implicit and explicit situational communication rules you were taught to use in the setting you selected:

p. 22-23

Culturally appropriate techniques activity 11 p 24 ho 4
Culturally Appropriate Techniques, steps: p.21activity 11, p. 24 HO#4

  • Checklist:

  • Does the task/technique recognize the value and belief system that are presumed to be a part of culture(s) of the student?

  • Does the technique refrain from any demeaning stereotypes of any culture, including the culture(s) of your students?

  • Does the technique refrain from any possible devaluing of the students’ native language(s)?

  • Does the technique recognize varying degrees of willingness of students to participate openly die to factors of collectivism/individualism and power distance?

  • If the technique requires students to go beyond the comfort zone of uncertainty avoidance in their culture(s), does it do so empathetically?

  • Is the technique sensitive to the perceived roles of males and females in the culture)s) of your students?

  • Does the technique sufficiently connect specific language features (e.g., grammatical categories, lexicon, discourse) to cultural ways of thinking , feeling, and acting?

  • Does the technique in some way draw on the potentially rich background experiences of the students, including their own experiences in other cultures?

Activity 11 language culture and the classroom handout
Activity 11: steps: p.21Language, Culture, and the Classroom- handout

  • Read scenario at the bottom of the page.

    -Discuss what may be some of the changes you could do to this lesson plan to address issues 1,4,5, and 6.

Handout from Trainer

Activity 12 wrap up think about it
Activity 12: steps: p.21Wrap-up/Think About It

Culture is partly created from its language. Certain cultural events, such as rituals, storytelling, folktales, and greetings, are deeply intertwined in language. A shift to using a new language will signify a shift in culture.

Language production is not only a psychological event but a process deeply embedded in culture.

p. 24

Talking points
Talking Points steps: p.21

  • Communication is more than speaking, listening, and comprehending.

  • To successfully communicate we must understand the rules of communication and apply them.

  • It is not whether one pattern of communication is right or wrong. What we need to consider is that all patterns of communication “evolve to express and satisfy particular cultural patterns and needs.”

Assignment review p 25
Assignment Review: p.25 steps: p.21

  • Interview

  • Tape Record Lesson

Please bring
Please bring: steps: p.21

  • Your assignment, interview/tape recording reflection

  • A lesson/materials you will be teaching in the near future (between Jan 30 and March 30).

Ticket to leave 3 2 1 activity 14 p 30
Ticket to Leave: 3-2- steps: p.211, activity 14 p.30

  • 3 BIG ideas from today’s workshop

  • 2 points to ponder

  • 1 action to take immediately