January 21, 2012
LEP Students in Massachusetts Schools-March 2005, over 112 different languages represented
LEP Students in Massachusetts Schools-2009
Cape Verdean 3.9%
Variable Language Output
Factors that influence both the nature of the linguistic input and strategies of the learner.
Examples include: classroom environment, cafeteria & doctor’s office.
Communication task:explaining, asking, requesting
Linguistic input includes the language of input (e.g. L1 or L2)
Communication tasks: academic discussion, vocabulary, abstract concepts, longer sentence structures and the amount of input.
Situation + input = learning environment
The second language learner uses cognitive and linguistic strategies to internalize new knowledge in L2.
Production strategies are the means by which the learner utilizes his or her L1 and existing L2 knowledge
The second language learner relies on their L1 when they lack resources in their L2
Language Production differs for all students.
The learner is still trying to figure out what rules govern the use of alternate forms.
This type of variability seems to be most common among beginning learners, and may be entirely absent among the more advanced.
You will be discussing one of these questions in your small group
2. Think about individual characteristics of a student or students and how these can influence the kind and amount of second language input they receive in a classroom.
3. Identify various situational factors and explain how these can influence the kind and amount of second language output by students in a classroom.
4.Think about individual characteristics of a student or students and how these can influence the kind and amount of their second language output in a classroom.
Think about the following:
Culture as an Iceberg
*Fine arts *Storytelling *Drumming *Subsistence *Dancing *Games *Cooking *Dress
*Weather forecasting *Animal behavior *Navigation skills *Observation skills *Pattern recognition *Seasonal changes/cycles *Edible plants/medical knowledge *Constellations*Language terminology *Counting, measurement, estimation *Clothing design/insulation *Tools/technology*Building design/materials *Transportation *Genealogy *Waste disposal *Fire *Hunting *Weapons
AND MUCH, MUCH MORE…..
What are the rules and norms that guide your classroom behavior in your school? What do your students need to know?
How were these rules taught and by whom?
How were they agreed upon?
How are they cooperatively maintained?
Are these rules universal within US culture or schools?
How may expected behaviors vary according to activity in your classroom?
“We take it(culture) for granted, we rarely think about it, and assume that our worldview is merely the human viewpoint.”
Carr-Ruffino, N. (1996)
Luck and fate
Not own control
Listen and obey,
Work towards group
High value on
Parents may be indulgent,
Not push towards
Parents do not verbalize ongoing events
Adults do not ask children to voice
Adults do not ask children to foretell
or repeat facts
De-emphasis on actions and event
Parents are parents not teachers
Directions are given one step versus multistep
Write about yourself and your family and not about your experiences with other cultures unless they directly involve a family member.
2. What were the rules of communication you were taught to use? Who taught you and how?
3. Write down the implicit and explicit situational communication rules you were taught to use in the setting you selected:
-Discuss what may be some of the changes you could do to this lesson plan to address issues 1,4,5, and 6.
Handout from Trainer
Culture is partly created from its language. Certain cultural events, such as rituals, storytelling, folktales, and greetings, are deeply intertwined in language. A shift to using a new language will signify a shift in culture.
Language production is not only a psychological event but a process deeply embedded in culture.