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Warm up. The sun is 4.6 billion years old – how can it continue to produce so much heat and light?. Nuclear reactions. Create new atoms – different elements Fission – splitting or decay Fusion – merging, combines. H fusion.

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Warm up

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Warm up

Warm up

  • The sun is 4.6 billion years old – how can it continue to produce so much heat and light?

Nuclear reactions

Nuclear reactions

  • Create new atoms – different elements

  • Fission – splitting or decay

  • Fusion – merging, combines

H fusion

H fusion

  • 4 H nuclei collide in a series of steps resulting in 1 He nuclei and ENERGY!!!

Energy transfer

Energy transfer

  • Conduction – energy by direct contact

  • Convection –heat transfer due to density differences

  • Radiation – floats away from the source

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  • Energy gets from the sun by radiation

  • So do radio waves, UV, infrared, etc

Structure of the sun

Structure of the Sun

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  • Solar flare – a bright temporary outburst of light and energy associated with sunspots

  • Solar prominence – a large gaseouseruption from the chromosphere

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Warm up

  • If there are so many stars producing light, why is the night sky so dark?



  • See the source - the flame, the light bulb, the sun

  • See the reflection

  • Earth’s atmosphere has lots of stuff to bounce off of

  • Space doesn’t

Electromagnetic spectrum

Electromagnetic spectrum

  • Radio waves, microwaves, infrared waves, visible light, X-rays, and gamma rays are all part of the electromagnetic spectrum.

  • Help us know elements in stars

  • Provide more information about stellar activity



  • Each element has a unique emission spectrum

  • Matching game

What objects can you see during the day night or both

What objects can you see during the day, night or both

  • Moon

  • Sun

  • Stars

  • Planets

  • Which of these do you see every night/day, every year, only once

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  • What ways do stars differ from each other?

  • How is the Sun like other stars?

  • How is the Sun unique?

How did the solar system start

How did the solar system start

  • Like any other star, from a nebula etc

Stellar evolution

Stellar Evolution

(The series of changes matter goes through in a star’s formation, life & death.)

First random, spread out matter

Then a supernova explosion starts things moving/compressing

Gravity will keep pulling things together, generating heat & light



  • Places where stars form

  • Protostars – hot, glowing points of light, gravity is still compressing, rotation

  • (Planetary systems may start forming)

  • Forces include gravity (compression), rotation, magnetism, pressure pulling apart

  • Heat trapped inside

  • 10 x 106 K Hydrogen FUSION BEGINS



Main sequence

Main Sequence

  • H fusion continues at a steady rate

  • On the H-R diagram

  • As H runs out, He fusion begins, leaves main sequence

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  • 4.5 billion years old (life as a main sequence star)

  • Middle aged

  • 4.5 billion years left in the current form

Red giant

Red giant

  • Core collapsing, He fusion, He consumed, gravity pulling tighter, Carbon, etc

  • Shell expanding, heat from new nuclear reaction driving shell away, shell goes further, cooling

  • The elements that form are dependent on the original mass of the star

  • The rate that fusion occurs is dependent on the original mass of the star

  • The internal & external temperatures are dependent on the original mass of the star

  • What happens next is dependent on the original mass of the star

Sun size

Sun Size

  • Shell keeps expanding until gravity can’t hold on any longer

  • Core keeps collapsing, fusion stops, still is hot & glowing

  • Core has become White Dwarf

  • Continues to cool and dim

Planetary nebula

Planetary Nebula

  • Note the remnant core (white dwarf) surrounded by the expanding shell.

More massive

More massive

  • Red Giant swells to supergiant

  • If swells & contracts fast enough – supernova explosion

  • Remnant white dwarf will keep collapsing, if there’s enough mass.

  • Collapses to a Neutron Star

  • Keeps collapsing if there’s enough mass

  • Collapses to a Black Hole

Doppler effect

Doppler Effect

  • Shift away – Red shift

  • Shift towards – blue shift

  • Edwin Hubble – discovered most galaxies are moving away from us.

  • Universe is expanding, it must have been much smaller

Big bang theory

Big Bang Theory

  • A superpowerful explosion of energy and matter 15 billion years ago

  • Just prior to BB all matter and energy was concentrated into an infinitesimally small ball

  • After Big Bang, energy and matter began to cool, gravity pulls matter into particles, stars, galaxies begin to form

  • (H eventually formed)

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  • Planet –solar system – Milky Way – Local Group - Universe



  • Spiral

  • Andromeda

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  • Ellipitcal

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  • Irregular



  • Rotation of Earth on Axis

  • Earth orbits Sun

  • Sun orbits center of Milky Way -

  • Galaxies are also moving

Test format

Test format

  • Multiple choice

  • Short answer

  • Long answer

  • paragraph

Diagram high vs low mass stars

Diagram High vs low mass stars

  • Neb – proto-MS-RG- PN - WD-BD

  • Neb- proto-MS-RG-SG-SN-WD-NS –BH

    • May stop at WD or NS or BH, depending on the mass of the remnant core

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  • Diagram High vs low mass stars

  • How far and what is the closest star (Sun and other)

  • Stellar evolution

  • Compare life span of High and low mass star

  • What is a star

  • Difference between a star and a planet – stars produce light/planets reflect light

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  • In a star, what is needed to create a neutron star?

  • How do scientists use spectrums?

  • What are absorption/ emission spectrum?

  • What do we need to start a star forming?

    • Dust, gas (matter) & energy (shock wave)

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  • Why is it so hard to find Black Holes?

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