Endocrinology of reproduction
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Endocrinology of reproduction. Reproductive System. Testes Series of ducts Epididymides Ductus deferentia Urethra Accessory glands Seminal vesicles Prostate gland Bulbourethral glands. Supporting structures Scrotum 2 chambered sac that contains testes

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Endocrinology of reproduction

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Endocrinology of reproduction

Reproductive System


Testes

Series of ducts

Epididymides

Ductus deferentia

Urethra

Accessory glands

Seminal vesicles

Prostate gland

Bulbourethral glands

Supporting structures

Scrotum

2 chambered sac that contains testes

Dartos and cremaster muscles help regulate temperature

Penis

Perineum

Diamond-shaped areas between thighs

Anatomy of Male Reproductive System


Male Pelvis


Glands

Exocrine

Endocrine

Compartments divided by septa

Seminiferous tubules

Empty into rete testis

Empties into efferent ductules

Interstitial or Leydig cells

Descent

Pass from abdominal cavity through inguinal canal to scrotum

Cryptorchidism

Failure of of one or both of testes to descend into scrotum

Prevents normal sperm development

Testes


Histology of Testis


Descent of Testes


Spermatozoa produced in seminiferous tubules

Spermatogonia divide (mitosis) to form primary spermatocytes

Primary spermatocytes (first division of meiosis) divide to form secondary spermatocytes

Secondary spermatocytes (second division of meiosis) divide to form spermatids

Spermatids develop an acrosome and flagellum

Sertoli cells nourish sperm cells and form a blood-testis barrier and produce hormones

Sperm Cell Development


Spermatogenesis


Meiosis


Epididymis

Site of sperm cell maturation

Ductus deferens or vas deferens

Passes from epididymis into abdominal cavity

Ejaculatory duct

Joining of ductus deferens and seminal vesicle

Urethra

Extends from urinary bladder to distal end of penis

Passageway for urine and male reproductive fluids

3 parts

Prostatic urethra

Membranous urethra

Spongy or penile urethra

Ducts


Male Reproductive Structures


Three columns of erectile tissue that engorge with blood

Corpora cavernosa (2)

Corpus spongiosum (1)

Glans penis

Prepuce or foreskin covers

Circumcision: Surgical removal

External urethra orifice

Penis


Penis


Seminal vesicles

Empty into ejaculatory duct

Produce about 60% of semen

Prostate gland

Produces about 30% of semen

Bulbourethral glands

Contribute about 5% to semen

Secretions

Semen

Composite of sperm cells and secretions

Emission

Discharge of semen into prostatic urethra

Ejaculation

Forceful expulsion of semen from urethra

Accessory Glands


Regulation of Sex HormoneSecretion

  • Hypothalamus releases

    • GnRH or LHRH which stimulates

      • LH or ICSH to produce testosterone

      • FSH to stimulate sperm cell formation

      • Inhibin inhibits FSH secretion from anterior pituitary


Puberty

Age at which individuals become capable of sexual reproduction

Before puberty small amounts of testosterone inhibit GnRH release

During puberty testosterone does not completely suppress GnRH release, resulting in increased FSH,LH, and testosterone

Testosterone

Produced by interstitial cells, adrenal cortex and sustentacular cells

Causes development of male sex organs in embryo, stimulates descent of testes, causes enlargement of genitals and necessary for sperm cell formation

Puberty and Testosterone


Male Sexual Behavior andMale Sex Act

  • Male sexual behavior

    • Testosterone required to initiate and maintain

  • Male sex act

    • Complex series of reflexes that result in erection of penis, secretion of mucus into urethra, emission, ejaculation

    • Sensations result in orgasm associated with ejaculation and then resolution


Neural Control of Erection

  • Stimulation

    • Tactile or psychological

    • Parasympathetic

      • Erection due to vasodilation of blood vessels

    • Sympathetic

      • Causes erection, emission, ejaculation

  • Erectile Dysfunction


Anatomy of Female Reproductive System

  • Female reproductive organs

    • Ovaries

    • Uterine tubes

    • Uterus

    • Vagina

    • External genital organs

    • Mammary glands


Female Pelvis


Uterus, Vagina, Uterine Tubes, Ovaries and Supporting Ligaments


Ovary Histology


Maturation of Follicle and Oocyte


Maturation and Fertilization of Oocyte


Oogenesis is the production of a secondary oocyte in ovaries

Oogonia are cells from which oocytes develop

Primary oocytes are surround by granulosa cells and called a primordial follicle

Primordial follicle becomes a primary follicle when oocyteenlarges and cells change

Primary follicle becomes secondary follicle and enlarges to form mature or graafian follicle

Usually only one is ovulated, others degenerate

Primary oocyte completes first meiotic division to produce secondary oocyte and a polar body

Secondary oocyte begins second meiotic division, which stops in metaphase II

Follicle and Oocyte Development


Ovulation

Follicle swells and ruptures, secondary oocyte is released from ovary

Second meiotic division completed when secondary oocyte unites with sperm cell to form zygote

Fate of the follicle

Graafian follicle become corpus luteum

If fertilization occurs, corpus luteum persists

If no fertilization, becomes corpus albicans

Ovulation and Follicle Fate


Uterine or fallopian tubes or oviducts

Open directly into peritoneal cavity to receive oocyte from ovary

Transport oocyte or zygote from ovary to uterus

Uterus

Parts: Body, isthmus, cervix

Composed of 3 layers

Perimetrium: Serous membrane

Myometrium: Smooth muscle

Endometrium: Mucous membrane

Uterine Tubes and Uterus


Vagina

Female organ of copulation

Allows menstrual flow and childbirth

Hymen covers the vaginal opening or orifice

Perineum

Divided into two triangles

Urogenital: Contains the external genitalia

Anal triangle

Clinical perineum

Region between vagina and anus

Episiotomy: Incision to prevent tearing during childbirth

Vagina and Perineum


Female External Genitalia

  • Vulva or pudendum or external female genitalia

    • Vestibule: Space

      • Labia minora: Form borders on sides

      • Clitoris: Erectile structure

        • Corpora cavernosa

        • Corpora spongiosa

    • Labia majora

      • Unite to form mons pubis


Female Perineum


Mammary Glands

  • Organs of milk production located within mammae or breasts

    • Consist of glandular lobes and adipose tissue

    • Cooper’s ligaments support the breasts


Puberty

Begins with menarche or first episode of menstrual bleeding

Begins when GnRH levels increase

Menstrual Cycle

About 28 days long

Phases

Menses

Proliferative phase

Secretory phase

Menses

Amenorrhea: Absence of a menstrual cycle

Menopause: Cessation of menstrual cycles

Puberty and Menstrual Cycle


Menstrual Cycle


Hormone Regulation during Menstrual Cycle


Female sexual behavior

Depends on hormones

Androgens and steroids

Depends on psychological factors

Female sex act

Parasympathetic stimulation

Blood engorgement in clitoris and around vaginal opening

Erect nipples

Mucouslike fluid extruded into vagina and through wall

Orgasm not necessary for fertilization to occur

Female Sexual Behaviorand Sex Act


Female fertility

Sperm ejaculated into vagina during copulation and transported through cervix and uterine tubes to ampulla

Sperm cells undergo capacitation

Pregnancy

Oocyte can be fertilized up to 24 hours after ovulation

Sperm cells can be viable for up to 6 days in female tract

Ectopic pregnancy: Implantation occurs anywhere other than uterine cavity

Female Fertility and Pregnancy


Sperm Cell Movement


Changes in Hormones During Pregnancy


Behavioral methods

Abstinence

Coitus interruptus

Rhythm method

Barrier methods

Condom

Male and female

Diaphragm

Cervical cap

Spermicidal agents

Lactation

Chemical methods

Oral contraceptives

Injections as Depo-Provera

Implants

Morning-after pills

Surgical methods

Vasectomy

Tubal ligation

Abortions

Control of Pregnancy


Male

Decrease in size and weight of testes

Decrease in sperm production

Prostate gland enlarges and increase in cancer

Impotence is age-related

Decrease in sexual activity

Female

Menopause

Decrease in size of uterus and vaginal wall thins

Age related increase in breast, uterine, ovarian cancer

Effects of Aging


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