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### Lecture 1

Design Basics

What does it take?

- Creativity
- Design will be rewarding
- The old saying “Many ways to skin a cat”
- Which begs the question
- “Why would you want too?”
- Targets
- Constraints

Constraints

- Economic
- Physical Laws
- Government Regulations
- Time

The Design Process

Objective

(Design Specification)

Collection of Data, physical properties, design methods

Generation of possible designs

Selection and Evaluation

Final Design

Recycle of un-reacted materials

Flow Material Storage

Feed Preparation

Product Separation

Reaction

By-products

Product Purification

Product Storage

Sales

Wastes

Anatomy of a Chemical ProcessProject Binder

- General Correspondence
- Communications between design team
- Equipment vendors
- Stake holders

- Calculation Sheets
- Design Calculations
- Costing
- Computer printouts

- Drawings
- PFD
- P&ID
- Plot/Site Plans
- Design Sketches

- Specification Sheets
- Unit Operations design details
- Tender Documents

- Purchase Orders
- Quotations
- Invoices

Process Manual

- Process Overview
- Operating Manuals
- Operating Procedures
- Hazop

Codes and Standards

- Why?
- Governing Bodies
- API
- ANSI
- ASTM
- ASME
- ISO
- GPSA

Information Flow

Unit Operation

Inlet

Outlet

Input Information

Calculation Method

Output Information

Degrees of Freedom

- If Nd = 0 : Then there is only one solution, the problem is not a true design problem as there is no room for optimization.
- If Nd < 0 : Then the problem is over-specified and only a trivial solution is possible.
- If Nd > 0 : Then the problem has an infinite number of possible solutions however the designer must assign values to Nd variables to solve the problem. The values assigned must come from research, codes, standards, rules of thumb and design experience.

Assignment 1

- 100 scfm of Atmospheric air must be heated up to 80oC for use in a downstream process.
- What are our design options?
- Use HYSYS to evaluate the possible options
- Which would you choose and why

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