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ASTN/ASON and GMPLS Overview and Comparison. By, Kishore Kasi Udayashankar Kaveriappa Muddiyada K. Motivations Complex process of provisioning of end-to-end transport service Heterogeneous transport networks Automation of end-to-end provisioning Ability to offer more service

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Overview and Comparison

  • By,
  • Kishore Kasi Udayashankar
  • Kaveriappa Muddiyada K


    • Complex process of provisioning of end-to-end transport service
    • Heterogeneous transport networks
    • Automation of end-to-end provisioning
    • Ability to offer more service
    • Directly integrate IP clients over WDM


    • “intelligence” into the control plane of OTN
    • automatic and seamless circuit provisioning
    • unified control binding technologies
  • Benefits?
    • cost reduction and better quality of network operation
    • simplified and rapid network configuration
    • switched services and dynamic bandwidth assignment


  • ITU-T Recommendation G.805/G.8080
  • Architecture that defines the components and interactions between components
  • Distributed control plane
  • Task of control planes
    • Call and connection control
    • Path control based on network state
    • Discovery for self configuration

ASTN/ASON (Continued…)

  • Protocols must support multi-layer, multi-vendor network
  • Layering
  • Administrative partitioning
  • Operational partitioning
  • Types of interfaces in the control plane


  • Unified control plane for packet and circuit switching technologies
  • Four interfaces.
  • Interface Switching Capability
  • No NNIs.

GMPLS (Continued…)

  • Extension of routing protocols
  • Signaling protocols, RSVP-TE and CR-LDP
  • Label Switched Paths (LSP)

Multi-layer Resource Model Representation


    • Basic topology abstraction is TE link
    • Link interface can support one or more interface switching types defined
    • Interface Switching Capability (ISC)
    • ISC descriptor describes related TE properties
    • A particular resource on a link is represented by a label

In GMPLS (Continued...)

    • Basic service abstraction is a LSP
    • Concept of hierarchical LSP
    • LSP in server region represented as TE link or Forwarding adjacency in client region
    • Client LSP routed over a TE link == tunneled within a server LSP

Multi-layer Resource Model Representation

  • In ASON
  • ISC concept has been reduced
  • Optical part of OTN hierarchy is mapped to LSC
  • Digital path layers of OTN and SDH hierarchy is mapped to TDM

In ASON (Continued…)

  • Transport networks functional model G.805
  • Client/server association between adjacent layers
  • Each layer partitioned to reflect internal structure

In ASON (Continued…)

  • Partitioning concepts
    • Starting from the smallest indivisible subnetwork
    • Contained and containing subnetwork
    • Contained subnetwork cannot provide connectivity not available in containing subnetwork
    • Ports on boundary of containing subnetworks and interconnection capability are represented by contained subnetworks

In ASON (Continued…)

  • Partitioning concepts (contd…)

In ASON (Continued…)

  • Layering concepts
    • Layer networks in a client-server model
    • Termination and Adaptation Functions
    • Topology and connectivity not visible to client

Overview of MPLS/GMPLS Concepts

  • Forward Equivalence Class
  • Label
  • LSR
  • LSP
  • Label allocation
  • Next Hop Label Forwarding Entry (NHLFE)
  • Route selection

Control Plane Architecture

  • In GMPLS
    • Peer model
    • Overlay model
    • Augmented model

Control Plane Architecture

  • In ASON
    • Protocol neutral way
    • Support various transport infrastructure
    • Applicable irrespective of control plane that has been subdivided into domains

In ASON (Continued…)

  • General model of policy
  • System is a collection of components
  • System boundary
  • Nested system boundaries
  • Policy port as filters

In ASON (Continued…)

  • General model of federation
    • Creation, deletion and maintenance of connections across multiple domains
    • Community of domains
    • Domains cooperate for connection management
    • Joint Federation Model and Cooperative model

In ASON (Continued…)

Cooperative Model

Joint federation Model


In ASON (Continued…)

  • Architectural components
    • Connection controller (CC) component
    • Routing controller (RC) component
    • Link resource manager component
    • Traffic policing (TP) component
    • Call controller component
    • Discovery agent (DA)
gmpls control plane policy based management and information modeling
GMPLS Control Plane, Policy-based Management and Information Modeling
  • Policy based Management (PBM)
  • Improve collaboration between management and GMPLS control plane.
  • Extending Policy Core Information models (PCIM) with policy events.
  • Diverse local and global decision logic distributed among multiple network elements and network layers.
discussion items
Discussion Items
  • Advantages and Features.
  • Types of GMPLS policies and actions – few examples
  • Control plane and PBM architecture.
  • GMPLS managed entities
  • Two uses cases to explain PBM in GMPLS
  • Dynamic, flexible and cooperative interworking
  • Traffic engineering (TE) capabilities brought by GMPLS.
  • Improve operational efficiency.
  • New services requires complex and dynamic configurations of network resources.
  • Avoid configuring node-by-node and consider entire network domain as a whole.
  • Increase automation by using rule sets.
  • Standardized operational processes in multi-vendor environments.
  • Policy rule - Network operator has control over state changes for a given network function.
  • Adapting and changing behavior at runtime.
  • Translating SLA, network and management areas (eg. Routing, configuration, fault management) into policies.
  • Adding/deleting/modifying policies in policy repository.
features continued
PBM Framework

Policy based admission control.

Policy Information Models

“Policies are used to control the state that a managed object is in at any given time; the state itself is modeled using an information model”.

Policy core Information Model (PCIM), MIB, PIB.

Policy rule – It is a binding of a set of policy actions to a set of policy conditions.

Features (Continued…)
policies and policy actions
Policies and Policy Actions
  • Admission Control Policy
    • Call/connection admission action, Call/connection Rejection Action.
  • Signaling Control Policy
    • Signaling recovery action
  • TE Routing Policy
    • Link State Advertisement action, Manage TE Info action
  • Path Computation and Selection Policy
    • Path computation action, Link Type selection action
  • Load Distribution Policy
    • Load distribution action
  • Recovery related policies……
control plane and pbm architecture
Need for a separate Control Plane (CP)

Fundamental principles of GMPLS CP

Separating protocol generic and application specific mechanisms.

TE Link as a unique application specific entity.

Two-stage OSPF architecture and database.

TE Link – resource aggregates that are encoded as links with TE attributes.

OSPF-TE with opaque LSA capabilities along with topology LSA distribution.

Control Plane and PBM Architecture
gmpls managed entities
GMPLS Managed Entities
  • Features of NOBEL Information Model.
    • Specifies managed entities and represents control plane (CP)
    • Components, capabilities, interworking of CP components.
  • CP Element represents a control plane instance hosted by a CP node.
  • Separate instances of managed entities for control plane and transport plane entities.
use case 1
Use Case 1
  • Combined call and connection setup via User Network Interface (UNI).
    • Considering circuit switch capable GMPLS network.
    • SLA/SLS information installed in policy and service admission repository.
    • Global call admission directives in global Call admission policy decision point (PDP) downloaded by policy execution point (PEP).
    • Local and node specific connection admission policies in global connection admission PDP.

[1] connection request using call setup messages over UNI

[1b] comparing client id and port with call admission directives, does not match.

[2a] call level parameters translate into network resource related requirements and evaluated by LPDP.

[2b] requirements verified against general connection admission policy

[3] May be asked to renegotiate due to network or node limitation


[4] connection setup is delegated to TEC which checks against path selection policy rules with LPDP

[5] signaling controller (SgC) requests LPDP to check against signaling control policy rules.

[6] ingress node signals modified call setup request.

use case 2
Use Case 2
  • Event Driven TE Policy action for TE link utilization threshold crossing event.
    • Emits threshold crossing alert (TSA).
    • use case example - Predefined percentage (say 85%) of the current forwarding adjacency (FA) packet switched connection (PSC) link unreserved bandwidth is consumed.
    • TE link utilization thresholds are set.
  • TE Control action –
    • New FA PSC LSP
    • New FA TDM LSP eg. At the server layer.

[1a] TE link emits TCA to TEC, internal signal.

[1b] TE link emits TCA to Management Plane (MP), CP-MP interaction notification.

[2] TEC requests PEP to invoke event policy rule.

[3] PEP forwards decision request to PDP (local, global or both)

[3a],[3b] LPDP evaluates load-distribution action policy rule. If it does not succeed, create LSP create action policy is evaluated with global PDP.


[4] LPDP evaluates path computation/selection policy rules and delegates TEC to enforce policy decisions.

[5] TEC triggers SgC for setup of server layer.

[6] If success, TEC will check LSA update policy and Information dissemination policy to initiate LSA update.

[7]. TEC updated TEDB with new FA-LSP and notifies MP about result of policy decision [8a]

[8b] TE Link emits state change notification to inform MP.

  • G.805 ITU-T specification
  • G.8080 ITU-T specification
  • ASON Current status of standardization work, B. Zeuner, G. Lehr, Deutsche Telekom
  • ASON and GMPLS – The battle of optical control plane
    • Data connection limited.
  • Control plane for Optical networks: The ASON Approach, Andrzej Jajszczyk, AGH University of science and technology, Krakow, Poland
  • ASON and GMPLS – Overview and Comparision, S. Tomic, B. Statovci-Halimi, A. Halimi
  • GMPLS Control Plane, policy based management, and information Modelling, H.Lonsethagen, et. al.