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HUMAN RESOURCE How do HR generate a pool of capable people to apply for employment? How do they assess suitability for succession to a job?. Edited by Fabio Emanuele Noia, Link Campus University of Malta, 2006. Chapter 7 Recruitment & Selection.

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Human resource

HUMAN RESOURCE

How do HR generate a pool of capable people to apply for employment? How do they assess suitability for succession to a job?

Edited by Fabio Emanuele Noia, Link Campus University of Malta, 2006

Chapter 7

Recruitment & Selection

Freely Inspired from Bratton J., Gold J., Human Resource Management, Theory and Practice, Palgrave, 2003 http://www.palgrave.com/business/brattonandgold/


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Recruitment

____________

The process of generating a pool of capable people to apply for employment to an organization.

Freely Inspired from Bratton J., Gold J., Human Resource Management, Theory and Practice, Palgrave, 2003


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Selection

____________

The process by which managers and others use specific instruments to choose from a pool of applicants a person or persons most likely to succeed in the job(s), given management goals and legal requirements.

Freely Inspired from Bratton J., Gold J., Human Resource Management, Theory and Practice, Palgrave, 2003


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Stages of recruitment and selection

____________

Internal and external factors + job analysis

Human Resource Planning

Recruitment

Pool of applicants

Selection

Job Performance

Freely Inspired from Bratton J., Gold J., Human Resource Management, Theory and Practice, Palgrave, 2003


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Psychological contract

____________

Recruitment and selection are vital stages in the formation of the expectations that form such acontract.

A contract which is key for organizational commitment and motivation.

Two-way flow of communication is needed as employees select an organization and the work on offer as much as employers select employees.

Mutual and reciprocal understanding of expectations

Freely Inspired from Bratton J., Gold J., Human Resource Management, Theory and Practice, Palgrave, 2003


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Legal context

____________

R&S practices are bound by the law of the land.

These have been notorious areas for demonstrating prejudiceand subjective influence, which could wel result in infringements under legislation dealing with discrimination.

Freely Inspired from Bratton J., Gold J., Human Resource Management, Theory and Practice, Palgrave, 2003


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3 forms of discrimination

____________

Direct (treated less favourably based on gender, race ethnicity, disability, …)

Indirect (a requirement not been shown to be justified apparently treats everyone equally but has a disproportinate effect on a particular group – applicant should be 1.85 m tall)

Victimization (individuals are discriminated against because they have exercised their rights under the law).

Freely Inspired from Bratton J., Gold J., Human Resource Management, Theory and Practice, Palgrave, 2003


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Equal pay

____________

For like work

Work rated as equivalent under a job evaluation scheme

Work of equal value, in terms of demands made under such headings as effort, skill and decision making.

Freely Inspired from Bratton J., Gold J., Human Resource Management, Theory and Practice, Palgrave, 2003


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Diverse workplace

____________

Antidiscrimination legislation provides the foundation for a growing interst in diversity at work, creating a working culture taht seeks, respects, values and harnesses difference.

Diversity can provide an organization with a valuable resource in competing both globally and locally

Freely Inspired from Bratton J., Gold J., Human Resource Management, Theory and Practice, Palgrave, 2003


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Attraction

____________

Assumptions:

People have a choise

The contribution they will make is not totally predictable

Employees will potentially attempt to retain significant discretion with respect to the effort they are prepared to make and their commitment to organizations.

Freely Inspired from Bratton J., Gold J., Human Resource Management, Theory and Practice, Palgrave, 2003


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Attraction

____________

As population grow older many organization have to adjust to better appeal to older workers (Japan)

Reduction of graduate jobs with increasing supply make difficult to find employment on advantageous terms – overqualification (UK)

Small and medium enterprises are becoming key sources of graduate recruitment – less formal and bureaucratic (Italy).

Freely Inspired from Bratton J., Gold J., Human Resource Management, Theory and Practice, Palgrave, 2003


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Selecting on competency

________________

Woodruffe (1992)

“the set of behavior patterns that the incumbent needs to bring to a position (relevant) in order to perform its tasks and function with competence”.

Dimensions of behavior that are distinct and associated with competent or effective performance should be identified and isolated for being used as a selection basis.

Freely Inspired from Bratton J., Gold J., Human Resource Management, Theory and Practice, Palgrave, 2003


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Attraction: HP Way

Clearly designed to bring about increased motivation, increased acceptance fo responsibility, deepened skills and greater commitment from workers already employed within the organization.

Projected images, values, and information on espoused goals will inetract with workers in the external labor market, inclusing both those employed and those unemployed, determining the degree of attraction that potential recruits feel towards the organization.

The basis for a compatible person-organization fit.

Freely Inspired from Bratton J., Gold J., Human Resource Management, Theory and Practice, Palgrave, 2003


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Attraction Retention Attrition

If they don’t fit they will leave (Schneider, 1987)

People are attracted to an organization on the basis of their own interests and personality.

Freely Inspired from Bratton J., Gold J., Human Resource Management, Theory and Practice, Palgrave, 2003


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Main approaches to attract

Walk-ins

Employee referrals

Advertising

Websites

Professional associations

Educational associations

Professional agencies

Employer Branding

E-recruitment (Monster, StepStone, Corporate websites)

Freely Inspired from Bratton J., Gold J., Human Resource Management, Theory and Practice, Palgrave, 2003


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Critical variable in attraction

Cost

Time

Labor market focus

Mobility of labor

Legislation on discrimination

Freely Inspired from Bratton J., Gold J., Human Resource Management, Theory and Practice, Palgrave, 2003


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Job description

Job title

Department

Responsible to:

Relationship

Purpose of Job/overall objectives

Specific duties and responsibilities

Physical/economic conditions

Freely Inspired from Bratton J., Gold J., Human Resource Management, Theory and Practice, Palgrave, 2003


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Personnel specification

Physical characteristics

Attainments

General intelligence

Specific aptitudes

Interests

Disposition

Circumstances

Freely Inspired from Bratton J., Gold J., Human Resource Management, Theory and Practice, Palgrave, 2003


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Performance contract

Added up to job description to better specify what a job holder agrees to accomplish over a period of time, summarizing the purpose of a job, how that purpose will be met over the time specified and how the achievement of objectives will be assessed.

Freely Inspired from Bratton J., Gold J., Human Resource Management, Theory and Practice, Palgrave, 2003


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Succesful attraction

Based on whether it attracts a sufficient number of applicants of the desired quality within the budget set and the time limit.

Freely Inspired from Bratton J., Gold J., Human Resource Management, Theory and Practice, Palgrave, 2003


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Selection

Good selection involves correct hiring decisions and cost and time considerartions.

Correct decisions: depends on selection process, validity and reliability of selected techniques; training of staff involved in the selection

Costs: cost of people and tools; cost of inducting and training new staff; cost of turnover if selected staff are not retained.

Time: relates to succession plan and the need to discharge responsibilities in a timely fashion.

Freely Inspired from Bratton J., Gold J., Human Resource Management, Theory and Practice, Palgrave, 2003


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Tools: interview

Two-way exchange, key to introduce company and job to candidates and address their expectations, as well as eliciting relevant information; test some aspects of candidates’ qualities and observe how they relate to people and facts.

Freely Inspired from Bratton J., Gold J., Human Resource Management, Theory and Practice, Palgrave, 2003


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Tools: interview –

reliability and validity

Reliability

From r=0.23 to 0.97 (Median 0.57)

Validity

From r=0.09 to 0.94 (Median 0.27)

The interview seems eficient in terms of reliability and validity.

Therefore judgement about suitability for employment should be made by other techniques.

Freely Inspired from Bratton J., Gold J., Human Resource Management, Theory and Practice, Palgrave, 2003


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Tools: interview - biases

Pre-interview

First impressions

Stereotypes

Contrast (the order matters)

Attraction (similarity of opinions and attitudes)

Structure (if varied affect reliability)

Questions (misleading, embarassing, …)

Listening (talk too much)

Retention and interpretation (poor recall or difficult interpretation)

Freely Inspired from Bratton J., Gold J., Human Resource Management, Theory and Practice, Palgrave, 2003


Selection testing

Selection: testing

  • A psychological test can be defined as a standardised situation in which human behavior is sampled, observed and desribed to produce an objective and standardised measure.

  • A test is made of a number of items (stimuli) eliciting answers (responses).


Test categories

Test categories

  • Maximum performance – to assess achieved abiities or potential (intelligence, cognitive and practical abilities, attitudes, performance)

  • Typical performance – preferences, typical behavior and ways of being of individuals (personality, interests, motivation). No right or wrong.


Maximum performance

Maximum performance

  • Measurement is through success in addressing problems, predisposition, adquired knowledge.

    • Intelligence test (General IQ) to assess mental abilities, development and efficiency

    • Attitude test to assess the ability to acquire, through training, abilities and reaction schemata

    • Performance test to assess already acquired knowledge, abilities and competences (school tests).


Typical performance

Typical performance

  • Personality (relatively stable aspects of personality).

  • Is aimed at profiling individuals, not to score them against each other.

  • Big Five Theories: Consciensciousness, Openess, Extroversion, Emotional Stability,


Other classifications

Other classifications

  • Objective tests: multiple answers (standardised)

  • Subjective tests: require personalised input (fill in the blanks)

  • Projective tests: ambiguous situations to be interpreted through individual projections (fill in the cloud).


Rationale for using testing

Rationale for using testing

  • Irregardless of considerations concerning the commercial success of some products, in selecting tests for personnel selection / promotion purposes it is important to assess the following:

    • Fit of test within the selection process

    • Fit of test within selection requirements

    • Validity and reliability of tests

    • Availability of proper standard population data

    • Expert administration and interpretation of outcomes

    • Overall cost-benefit analysis.


Assessment of drivers subjective mental work load in a transportation company

Assessment of drivers’ subjective mental work-load in a transportation company

  • Definition of mental workload in the specific context

  • Identification of interactions between tasks, resources and context

  • Identification of behavioural markers associated with workload variations

  • Further statistical analysis and testing of markers to define best items for questionnaire.

  • Administration and analysis of results

  • Recommendation to improve driving conditions/reduce accident risks


Assessment of drivers subjective mental work load in a transportation company1

Assessment of drivers’ subjective mental work-load in a transportation company

  • This type of study will permit the company to understand more about the task itself and the requirements for those operators to be assigned to the tasks.

  • The outcome can serve as a useful input for job re-design/improvement and for a better definition of operator entry / selection / development requirements.


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Assessment Centers

Given the weakness of single measures organizations are increasingly combining techniques adn applying them together at events referred to as Assessment Centers.

Consist of group discussions, role plays, simulations, interviews and tests.

Freely Inspired from Bratton J., Gold J., Human Resource Management, Theory and Practice, Palgrave, 2003


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Realistic Job Preview

Both parties in the recruitment and selection process are making decisions, and it is important for an organization to recognize that high quality applicants, attracted by the image of an organization , could be lost at an early stage unless they were supplied with realistic organization and work information.

Applicant have expectations about how the organization will treat them (also the kind of tests and interwies they will be administered – face validity) and R&S represent an opportunity to clarify these.

Recruitment is about making a promise, selection about keeping to it, properly planning and managing all moments of true.

Freely Inspired from Bratton J., Gold J., Human Resource Management, Theory and Practice, Palgrave, 2003


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Induction: socialization to work

Suitable candidate will be made an offer.

The offer will be accepted or rejected or further negotiated by the candidate.

A contract of employment will be eventually signed.

Employee will report to his/her new job on a stated date.

The new employee will be introduced (abandoned) to office, colleagues and job, and will be mentored, tutored or trained to get to expected performance level as soon as possible.

Freely Inspired from Bratton J., Gold J., Human Resource Management, Theory and Practice, Palgrave, 2003


Assignment on line recruitment visit http www aolr org

Assignment

___________

On line recruitment. Visit:

http://www-aolr.org

Freely Inspired from Bratton J., Gold J., Human Resource Management, Theory and Practice, Palgrave, 2003


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