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Department of Computer and Information Science, School of Science, IUPUI. CSCI 230. Introduction to Computers - Hardware. Dale Roberts, Lecturer Computer Science, IUPUI E-mail: [email protected] What is a Computer?. Computer

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Department of Computer and Information Science,School of Science, IUPUI

CSCI 230

Introduction to Computers

- Hardware

Dale Roberts, Lecturer

Computer Science, IUPUI

E-mail: [email protected]


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What is a Computer?

  • Computer

    • Device capable of performing computations and making logical decisions

    • Computers process data under the control of sets of instructions called computer programs

    • Personal computers: economical enough for individual

    • Distributed computing: computing distributed over networks

    • Client/server computing: sharing of information across computer networks between file servers and clients (personal computers)

Dale Roberts


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User

Application

Software

High-level

Language

Assembly

Language

Firmware

Machine

Code

OS

Hardware

What is a Computer? (cont.)

  • Computer Hardware

    • Various devices comprising a computer:

    • Keyboard, screen, mouse, disks, memory, CD-ROM, and processing units

    • Hardware Trends: every year or two the following approximately double (Moore’s Law):

      • Amount of memory in which to execute programs

      • Amount of secondary storage (such as disk storage)

        • Used to hold programs and data over the longer term

      • Processor speeds

        • The speeds at which computers execute their programs


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User

Application

Software

High-level

Language

Assembly

Language

Firmware

Machine

Code

OS

Hardware

What is a Computer? (cont.)

  • Computer Software

    • Computer Programs that run on a computer, including

      • Operation System (OS)

      • Application Software

      • Computer Language


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Moore's Law

  • Defined by Dr. Gordon Moore during the sixties.

  • Predicts an exponential increase in component density over time, with a doubling time of 18 months.

  • Applicable to microprocessors, DRAMs , DSPs and other microelectronics.

  • Monotonic increase in density observed since the 1960s.


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Moore’s Law - Density


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Moore's Law and Performance

  • The performance of computers is determined by architecture and clock speed.

  • Clock speed doubles over a 3 year period due to the scaling laws on chip.

  • Processors using identical or similar architectures gain performance directly as a function of Moore's Law.

  • Improvements in internal architecture can yield better gains than predicted by Moore's Law.


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Moore’s Law - Clock Speed


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What is a Computer? (cont.)

  • Internet

    • The Internet enables

      • Quick and easy communication via e-mail

      • International networking of computers

    • Packet switching

      • The transfer of digital data via small packets

      • Allows multiple users to send and receive data simultaneously

    • No centralized control

      • If one part of the Internet fails, other parts can still operate

    • Bandwidth

      • Information carrying capacity of communications lines

      • Ex: Internet T2 at IUPUI

    • World Wide Web

      • Locate and view multimedia-based documents on almost any subject

      • Makes information instantly and conveniently accessible worldwide

      • Possible for individuals and small businesses to get worldwide exposure

      • Changing the way business is done


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CPU

Control Circuit

(ex: PC: Program Counter)

Memory

I/O

ALU

Computer Organization

A Typical Von-Neumann Architecture

Example:

  • Input unit

  • Output unit

  • Memory unit

  • Arithmetic and logic unit (ALU)

  • Central processing unit (CPU)

  • Secondary storage unit


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Computer Organization (cont.)

Six logical units in every computer:

  • Input unit

    • Obtains information from input devices (keyboard, mouse)

  • Output unit

    • Outputs information (to screen, to printer, to control other devices)

  • Memory unit

    • Rapid access, low capacity, stores input information

    • ROM (Read Only Memory): CMOS, EPROM …

    • RAM (Random Access Memory): SRAM, DRAM, SIMM, DIMM …


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Computer Organization (cont.)

Six logical units in every computer (cont):

  • Arithmetic and logic unit (ALU) – part of CPU

    • Performs arithmetic calculations (addition, subtraction...) and logic decisions

  • Control unit (CU) - part of CPU

    • Supervises and coordinates the other sections of the computer

  • Secondary storage unit

    • Cheap, long-term, high-capacity storage

    • Stores inactive programs


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Computer Organization (cont.)

  • Central Processing Unit (CPU),

    • “brain” of a computer, consisting of

      • Arithmetic and logic unit(ALU): performs arithmetic calculations (addition, subtraction...) and logic decisions (>, <, =, ...)

      • Control Unit (CU): decodes each machine instruction and sends signal to other components for carrying out the instruction.

    • An integrated circuit (IC) that is a full central processing unit is called a microprocessor (p); a CPU’s current instruction and data values are stored temporally inside the CPU in special high-speed memory location called registers.

    • CPU speed: ? MHz (M: Mega = 106, Hz=1/sec);


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Computer Organization (cont.)

  • Memory

    • A large collection of circuits, each capable of storing bit

    • Cells (words): manageable units; typical size is 8 bits (1 byte), some machines are 16 bits (2 bytes) and some are 32 bits or 64 bits

      • Byte (8 bits), KB (kilobyte, 103 210 bytes), MB (Megabyte, 106 220 bytes), GB (Gigabyte, 109 230 bytes). Note: k ≠ K because 1000 ≠ 1024.


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Most Significant Bit (MSB)

Least Significant Bit (LSB)

High-order end

0 0 0 0 0 1 0 1

Low-order end

Computer Organization (cont.)

  • Computer memory is comparable to a collection of numbered mailboxes. To identify individual cells in a machine’s main memory, each cell is assigned a unique name, called its address

  • The organization of byte-size memory cell

H

e

l

l

o

,

ASCII

...

...

Data

01001000

01100101

01101100

01101100

01101111

00101110

Address

0000 0101

0000 0110

0000 0111

0000 1000

0001 0001

0001 0010

Address Bus

Data Bus


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Acknowledgements

  • Moore’s Law: Kopp, Carlo. Monash University. Melbourne, Australia. 2000.


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