Unpaid Work: From Recognition to Transformation. by Diane Elson, Levy Economics Institute and University of Essex Presentation to Hawke Research Institute University of South Australia. Questions. Is it enough to recognize the economic and social value of unpaid work?
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Unpaid Work: From Recognition to Transformation
by Diane Elson, Levy Economics Institute
and University of Essex
Presentation to Hawke Research Institute
University of South Australia
Unpaid Work and the Market Economy
Formal paid work
Paid and unpaid
Good and services and monetary flows
Non profit institutions
Informal work Paid and unpaid
Source: Short, 2000, Office of National Statistics, London
Source: Budlender and Brathaug, 2005, Table 2
Source: Calculated from Chakraborty, 2005, Table 3
Sources: UK: Office for National Statistics, www.statistics.gov.uk/hhsa/hhsa/index.html South Africa: Bulender and Brathaug, 2005 India: Chakraborty, 2005
Time Spent Collecting Water (average daily minutes)
Sources: South Africa: Calculated from Charmes, 2005, Table 6
India: Calculated from Chakraborty, 2005 Table 6
Sources: UK: Calculated from Short, 2000, Table 2
South Africa: Budlender and Brathaug, 2005, Table 2
India: Calculated from Chakraborty, Table 3
Over 1/2 a million more women than men are living in poverty
Women receive an average of just 54 pence for every 1 pound received by men
Following divorce, a woman’s income is likely to decline by nearly 1/5, a man’s income changes little
26% of employees work part-time, of these, 79% are women. Part-time jobs are low-paid and lack pension benefits
Hourly pay of women working part-time is 40% less than hourly pay of men working full-time
Only 13% of today’s women pensioners are entitled to the full basic state pension, compared to 92% of men
Source: Bellamy and Rake, 2005
Sources: South Africa: Chen et al., 2005, Table 3.12
India: Banerjee, 2000, quoted in Elson and Keklik, 2002
Directly, via the Labor Market
Indirectly, via the State
Providing the Ultimate Safety Net
Source: Elson, forthcoming
Should tax systems recognize the value of unpaid work by providing taxpayers with allowances for non-earning dependents who do unpaid work at home?
Should tax systems instead provide households with tax allowances/credits to cover some of the costs of purchasing substitutes for unpaid work?
If tax allowances/credits are related to childcare costs, how can the system be designed in ways that do not reinforce the idea that child care is solely the mother’s responsibility?