The Roman Poor 1. Returned from war to find their farms were ___sold___ for unpaid ____taxes___ 2. Moved to the ____city___ to look for jobs 3. Sold their ___votes____ to make money and became __poorer_____. B. Tiberius Gracchus 1. Tried to _give public land to the poor ___
A. Julius Caesar,Crassus_,Pompey=1stTriumvirate
1. Began the _____second great period of Roman history___________________________________________________
A bustling center of political consumer market life, it was an ideal place for dramatic speeches.
Rich landowners lived on huge estate
The Rich landowners (Latifundia) were taking farms left untended by soldiers serving in the army.
Slaves captured during the wars had to work The latifundia’s
Small farmers found it difficult to compete with large estates that were run by slaves and these farmers had to work as seasonal migrant laborers or move to the cities to find jobs.
The wealthy became corrupt which causes tension between the social classes (discontent arose among the slaves and resentment among the poor.
Tiberius Gracchus attempted to organize a fairer distribution of land, his brother Gaius tried to integrate the peoples of Italy into the Roman state. Both - despite being the elected representatives of the people (tribunes) were murdered by senators, fearful that their ancient privileges were being eroded.
Marius opens the army to all citizens. But his new army is loyal to him personally rather than to the state. For the first time the army is used by an individual to short-circuit traditional political methods.(The Roman army consist of paid soldier or slaves; not citizen soldiers
As a consul, he (Marius) promised recruits land in exchange for their service (Africa) and was rejected by the Senate. Civil war erupted and Gen Sulla restored order.
The government was in a state of collapse, and so he joined Crassus and Pompey to form the First Triumvirate – which means rule by three men. In 59 B.C. Caesar was elected to the highest office, that of consul.
The Celtic tribes of Gaul were conquered and the country incorporated into the Roman Empire. Invading tribes from Germany were hurled back, and when they persisted in returning, Caesar crossed the Rhine and taught them a severe lesson. Soon after this he embarked on his most exciting venture: the invasion of Britain.
The Senate now joined forces with Caesar's old ally, Pompey, in order to seize power from Caesar. They sought to impose severe restrictions on him, and ordered him to come to Rome alone, unarmed, and stripped of all his offices. "Aleaiactaest", quoted as "Let the die be cast" or "Let the dice fly high."
The Senate had been disobeyed and civil war had begun. In Italy Caesar's old soldiers flocked to join him. Pompey, seeing that he could not overcome Caesar in Italy, fled to Greece.
Pompey fled to Egypt, but the Egyptian king, Ptolemy, seeing which way the wind was blowing, had him murdered. When Caesar arrived a few weeks later, he was (to his utter disgust) presented with Pompey's mummified head
Ptolemy was deposed and his sister, Cleopatra, made queen. A romantic attachment developed between the old soldier and the beautiful young queen, and Caesar dallied in Egypt still longer.
Then at last Caesar returned to Rome. He was now undisputed master of the civilized world. He was made dictator for life and was even regarded as one of the gods
The Senate thought he was going to abolish the republican form of government and make himself king. Several of these men became so alarmed that they plotted together to murder Caesar. On the Ides of March (15th) 44 BC Caesar arrived at the Senate. At a given signal the conspirators gathered round and plunged their daggers into his body.(23 times)(“Et tu Brute?”)
Second three-man ruling group to rule Rome, formed to fill the void in government left by Julius Caesar's death.
When Antony became involved with Cleopatra and decided to fight Rome, Octavian played a part in defeating Antony's forces. Once Antony was out of the way and Lepidus was forced to retire, Octavian was free to become Augustus Caesar. (next slide Actium 31BCE)
OctaviusThurinus, he was adopted by his great-uncle Gaius Julius Caesar in 44 BC,
The rule of Augustus initiated an era of relative peace known as the PaxRomana, or Roman peace. (207 years)
In his will Tiberius left the empire to both Caligula and Tiberius Gemellus, but soon after becoming Emperor, Caligula had Tiberius' will declared void and soon had Gemellus killed
• Good administrator
• Murdered many
• Ruled dictatorially
• Feared treason
of adopting heir
its greatest extent
• Undertook vast
• Enlarged social
• Reorganized the
• Reign largely a
period of peace
to height of
• Wrote philosophy
Marius, a legion had several standards which were carried in front of different units. He made the eagle the pre-eminent standard for all legions, to be a signal as to where the action was and a rallying point for the troops. To lose, or to have to surrender, an eagle to the enemy was a colossal disgrace.
If the eagle was captured the legion would disband. It is interesting that Julius Caesar personally sanctified the eagle when the legion was brought forth. On one of the legion standards the powerful talons of the eagle are gripping golden thunderbolts, as the eagle stands ready for flight against all enemies of Rome. At the very top of the standard above the eagle is a gold bar with the inscription SPQR (SenatusPopulusRomanus) honoring the Senate and the People