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The Forgotten Pandemic The 1918 Flu Epidemic. Presentation by Robert Martinez Primary Content Source: Wikipedia “Spanish Flu.” Images as cited. http://www.fas.org/programs/ssp/bio/_images/fact_sheet/1918%20flu-1.jpg. http://www.whale.to/b/flumania.jpg. I had a little bird,

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the forgotten pandemic the 1918 flu epidemic

The Forgotten PandemicThe 1918 Flu Epidemic

Presentation by Robert Martinez

Primary Content Source: Wikipedia “Spanish Flu.”

Images as cited.

http://www.fas.org/programs/ssp/bio/_images/fact_sheet/1918%20flu-1.jpg

slide3
I had a little bird,

Its name was Enza,

I opened the window,

And in-flew-enza.

American Skipping Rhyme (circa 1918.)

slide4
The 1918 flu pandemic, commonly referred to as the Spanish flu, was an influenza pandemic that spread to nearly every part of the world.

http://www.olgp.net/chs/d1/flu2.jpg

slide6
It was caused by an unusually virulent and deadly influenza A virus strain called H1N1. Historical data is inadequate in identifying the geographic origin of the virus.

http://wpcontent.answers.com/wikipedia/commons/thumb/0/06/165-WW-269B-11-trolley-l.jpg/180px-165-WW-269B-11-trolley-l.jpg

slide7

http://www.wwnorton.com/college/history/archive/resources/images/ch25_22.gifhttp://www.wwnorton.com/college/history/archive/resources/images/ch25_22.gif

slide8
Most of its victims were healthy young adults, in contrast to most influenza outbreaks which predominantly affect juvenile, elderly, or otherwise weakened immune-system patients.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Sp-flu-alberta-field.jpg

slide9
The pandemic lasted from March 1918 to June 1920, spreading even to the Arctic and remote Pacific Islands.

http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/e/e2/Spanish_flu_death_chart.png

slide10
It is estimated that anywhere from 20 to 100 million people were killed worldwide. The pandemic is estimated to have affected up to one billion people, half the world’s population at the time.

http://wpcontent.answers.com/wikipedia/commons/thumb/4/43/1918_flu_in_Oakland.jpg/180px-1918_flu_in_Oakland.jpg

slide11
In the United States, the disease was first observed at Fort Riley, Kansas on March 4, 1918, and in Queens, New York, on March 11, 1918.

http://freepages.genealogy.rootsweb.ancestry.com/%7Efamilyhistorypages/The_Spanish_Influenza_files/image008.gif

slide12
The Allies of WW I came to call it the Spanish flu, primarily because the pandemic received greater press attention after it moved from France into Spain in November 1918. Spain was neutral during WWI, therefore, the press was not censured as in other warring countries.

http://www.dmacdigest.com/Images/1918/ambulance3.jpg

slide13
Modern scientists have used tissue samples from frozen victims to reproduce the virus for study. Among the conclusions of this research is that the virus kills by a overreaction of the body’s immune system).

http://www.todayinsci.com/Events/Medical/Checkup1918Thm.jpg

slide14

http://sharlot.org/archives/history/dayspast/images/2008_09_10.jpghttp://sharlot.org/archives/history/dayspast/images/2008_09_10.jpg

slide15
Therefore, the strong immune systems of young adults ravaged the body, whereas the weaker immune systems of children and middle-aged adults caused fewer deaths.

http://www.paho.org/Images/DD/PIN/persp18_13.jpg

slide16
The global mortality rate from the pandemic is not known. Influenza may have killed as many as 25 million in its first 25 weeks ( a fast killer.)

.

http://www.cbc.ca/news/sars/gfx/epidemic1.jpg

slide17
This pandemic has been described as “the greatest medical holocaust in history” and may have killed more people than the Black Death.

http://www.stanford.edu/%7Ejpc/Chapter4_files/image003.jpg

approximate deaths worldwide samples
Approximate DeathsWorldwide Samples *
  • India – 17 million
  • Japan – 390,000
  • U.S. – 675,000
  • England – 250,000
  • France – 400,000
  • Canada – 50,000

* http://en.wikipedia.org/Flu_epidemic_of_1918

slide20

http://www.wellcome.ac.uk/stellent/groups/corporatesite/@msh_publishing_group/documents/image/wtd028181.jpghttp://www.wellcome.ac.uk/stellent/groups/corporatesite/@msh_publishing_group/documents/image/wtd028181.jpg

slide21
This huge death toll was caused by an extremely high infection rate of up to 50%, and the extreme severity of the symptoms.

.

http://lass.calumet.purdue.edu/histpoly/bigott/CALUMETMUSEUMWEB/1918articles/oct25b.JPG

slide22
One of the most striking of the complications was hemorrhaging (bleeding) from the mucous membranes, especially from the nose, stomach, and intestines, ears, and lesions in the skin.

http://www.yannone.org/BlogPics/FluVictim.jpg

slide23
Symptoms included a blue tint to the face and coughing up blood caused by severe obstruction of the lungs.

http://origin.foxnews.com/images/254389/2_61_spanish_flu_1918.jpg

slide24

http://www.harrymartinmusic.com/Scrap%20Book/Spanish%20flu%20victims,%20%20North%20River%201918.JPGhttp://www.harrymartinmusic.com/Scrap%20Book/Spanish%20flu%20victims,%20%20North%20River%201918.JPG

slide25
In some cases, the virus caused uncontrollable hemorrhaging that filled the lungs, and patients drowned in their own body fluids (pneumonia.)

http://graphics8.nytimes.com/images/2005/08/21/nyregion/21pandemic1.583.jpg

slide26

http://4.bp.blogspot.com/_473nrD5vEv8/R9Z1nmU94xI/AAAAAAAAAVc/1TZEry9zRO0/s400/flu-pandemic.jpghttp://4.bp.blogspot.com/_473nrD5vEv8/R9Z1nmU94xI/AAAAAAAAAVc/1TZEry9zRO0/s400/flu-pandemic.jpg

slide27
While WWI did not cause the flu, the close troop quarters and massive troop movements accelerated the pandemic, increasing transmission.

http://www1.imperial.ac.uk/resources/BCBB9421-6B48-487A-8808-077A24A0CA9A/

slide28

http://www.pbs.org/newshour/bb/health/birdflu/images/spanishflu1_sub.jpghttp://www.pbs.org/newshour/bb/health/birdflu/images/spanishflu1_sub.jpg

slide29
Some researchers speculate that the soldiers’ immune systems were weakened by malnourishment, and the stresses of combat and chemical attacks, increasing their susceptibility to the disease.

http://static.howstuffworks.com/gif/10-worst-epidemics-3.jpg

slide30
The virus helped tip the balance of power in the war towards the Allied cause. The flu hit the Central Powers before it the Allied Powers, and the mortality rates in Germany and Austria were considerably higher than Britain and France.

http://graphics8.nytimes.com/images/2007/04/17/science/flu_4.600.jpg

slide31
An additional factor of the Spanish flu (like today) was increased travel. Modern transportation systems made it easier for people to spread the disease quickly to communities worldwide.

http://www.ltmcollection.org/resources/index.html?IXglossary=First+World+War

slide32
The Great Influenza was the source of much fear in citizens around the world. Inflaming that fear was the fact that world governments and health officials were downplaying the situation.

http://www.pastforward.ca/perspectives/images/flue.jpg

slide33

http://seattletimes.nwsource.com/ABPub/2007/03/16/2003621769.jpghttp://seattletimes.nwsource.com/ABPub/2007/03/16/2003621769.jpg

slide34
While the panic from WWI was dwindling, governments attempted to keep morale up by spreading lies and downplaying the influenza.

http://graphics8.nytimes.com/images/2007/04/17/science/flu_4.600.jpg

slide35

http://farm4.static.flickr.com/3239/2777726533_024e1d87b0.jpghttp://farm4.static.flickr.com/3239/2777726533_024e1d87b0.jpg

slide36
While medical scientists attempted to discover a cure or vaccine, there was virtually no assistance from world governments. The war in Europe had become the #1 priority.

http://www.glenbow.org/exhibitions/online/libpics/flu1.jpg

slide37
Many historians have called the Spanish flu the “forgotten pandemic.”

http://www.history.navy.mil/pics/influ.jpg

slide38

http://www.alumni.umn.edu/sites/d2e2f762-6a18-437f-ad49-168669330020/uploads/flu1.jpghttp://www.alumni.umn.edu/sites/d2e2f762-6a18-437f-ad49-168669330020/uploads/flu1.jpg

slide39
The majority of deaths, in both WWI and in the Spanish Flu epidemic, were young adults. The deaths caused by the flu may have been overlooked due to the large numbers of deaths in the war.

http://blog.eogn.com/eastmans_online_genealogy/spanish_flu_new.jpg

slide40

http://sharlot.org/archives/history/dayspast/images/2008_09_10.2.jpghttp://sharlot.org/archives/history/dayspast/images/2008_09_10.2.jpg

slide41
In addition, during this time period, pandemic outbreaks were not uncommon; typhoid, yellow fever, diphtheria, and cholera all occurred near the same time period.

http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/1/13/Spanish_flu_hospital.png/300px-Spanish_flu_hospital.png

notable epidemic survivors
Notable Epidemic Survivors

Presidents Woodrow Wilson & Franklin D. Roosevelt

http://www.answers.com/topic/woodrow-wilson

http://www.answers.com/topic/franklin-d-roosevelt

spanish flu survivors
Spanish Flu Survivors

Famed animator Walt Disney

Silent film super-star Mary Pickford

http://www.answers.com/topic/mary-pickford

http://www.answers.com/topic/walt-disney

spanish flu survivors45
Spanish Flu Survivors

U.S. General John J. Pershing, WWI

Wilhelm II, German Emperor, WWI

http://www.answers.com/topic/john-j-pershing-1

http://www.answers.com/topic/wilhelm-ii-of-germany

notable flu survivor
Notable Flu Survivor

Leo Szilard, Inventor

Nuclear Chain Reaction

http://www.answers.com/topic/le-szil-rd-2

swine flu 2009
Swine Flu 2009

http://graphics8.nytimes.com/images/2009/04/25/world/25mexico2_600.jpg

http://www.huffingtonpost.com/huff-wires/20090428/us-swine-flu-us/images/bb79eda6-71a8-4416-b157-85fb902009af.jpg

swine flu 200948
Swine Flu 2009

http://images.huffingtonpost.com/gadgets/slideshows/1466/slide_1466_20818_large.jpg

http://www.cbc.ca/gfx/images/news/photos/2009/04/25/passengers-masks-cp-250-661.jpg

swine flu 200949
Swine Flu 2009

http://media.cnbc.com/i/CNBC/Sections/News_And_Analysis/__Story_Inserts/graphics/__HEALTH/flu_outbreak3.jpg

swine flu 200950
Swine Flu 2009

http://graphics8.nytimes.com/images/2009/04/25/world/25mexicoA_xl.jpg

http://www.huffingtonpost.com/huff-wires/20090426/med-swine-flu/images/147c4e39-87ba-49d8-ab1e-51e0e0757865.jpg

slide51

Texas cancels high school athletics as flu

cases grow to 16

Comal ISD/New Braunfels ISD closing all schools

SWINE FLU: 1st Death in US is Child in Texas;

All Comal schools closed until May 11

http://www.abrazo.org/saen.gif

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