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Distribution Efficiency Initiative: Calculator Review. April 29, 2008 Regional Technical Forum. Overview. Calculator Input & Output Review DEI Measure Life Develop 3 New Load Shapes I 2 R Losses Transformer No-Load Losses Delivered Energy Reduction Savings.

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distribution efficiency initiative calculator review

Distribution Efficiency Initiative:Calculator Review

April 29, 2008

Regional Technical Forum

  • Calculator Input & Output Review
  • DEI Measure Life
  • Develop 3 New Load Shapes
    • I2R Losses
    • Transformer No-Load Losses
    • Delivered Energy Reduction Savings
where the savings are expected to come from
Where the Savings are Expected to Come From

Source: NEEA DEI Project Final Report by RW Beck page B-23

calculator overview
Calculator Overview

Calculator Inputs

Calculator Outputs


I2R Losses

Balanced losses

Unbalanced losses

Transformer No-load Losses

Delivered Energy Reduction


Utility B/C and Payback

  • Pre & Post Conditions
    • Load Types (heating system types, etc.)
    • Line Info (length, type, etc.)
    • Regulator Info
    • Load Info (kW, PF, Annual Energy etc.)
    • Equipment (Capacitors, Transformers)
  • Costs
    • Materials
    • Labor
calculator primary issues
Calculator Primary Issues
  • Calculator Does Not Output
    • Substation Power Transformer Losses
      • Approx. 33% of the savings
    • Secondary Line Losses
      • Approx. 3% of the savings
    • I2R Loss Calculation may need revision
      • Does not output negative savings when voltage reduction is the only measure
  • TRC Analysis Added to Calculator
    • O&M Costs Input
    • TRC Analysis Output
what s the measure life 15 years for all
What’s the Measure Life15 years for all?

Savings Mechanism

  • Voltage Regulation
    • LDC using LTC or Voltage Regulator
      • Substation Bus (control setting)
      • Each Feeder (control setting)
    • End of Line feedback
      • Substation Bus (device, override?)
      • Each Feeder (device, override?)
  • Equipment Upgrades
    • Capacitor Banks (device, 10 year life?)
    • Transformers (device)
  • Phase Balancing (maintenance?)
  • Line Voltage Regulators (device)
  • Reconductoring
  • Current assumption is 15 years.
  • Some components last about 10 years (capacitor banks)
  • Much of the savings rely on maintaining improved control practices over time, rather than installing more efficient equipment.
  • Calculator does not allow for varying measure life by component.
  • Load Research
    • Home Voltage Regulators on 395 homes
  • Pilot Demonstration
    • Various DEI measures on 10 substations (31 feeders)

DEI Study had two monitoring components

kw from load research
∆kW from Load Research


delivered energy savings shape
Delivered Energy Savings Shape


Load Factor: 0.68

Coincident Factor: 0.39

i 2 r loss load shape i 2 r proxy kw pre v pre 2 kw post v post 2
I2R Loss Load Shape∆I2Rproxy =(kWpre/Vpre) 2 – (kWpost/Vpost) 2

Result (negative savings):

Load Factor: 0.29

Coincident Factor: 0.15

issues with these load shapes
Issues with these Load Shapes
  • Averaged seasonal shapes
    • Do not take weekend/weekday into account
    • Peaks are hidden in the averaging
      • ∆V will be less during peak loading conditions
  • Delivered Energy Savings Shape
    • Delta kW from HVR’s is different than delta kW from a change in LTC settings at the bus/feeder
    • Heating/Cooling system type is averaged for the region
  • I2R loss savings shape is complex
    • This load shape is based solely on a system voltage reduction
    • Savings could also come from:
      • Phase balancing (shape?)
      • PF correction (shape?)
  • Transformer No-Load Loss Savings Shape
    • Need Pilot Demonstration data to determine how different it is from flat
questions for rtf
Questions for RTF
  • What is needed for approval of the calculator?
    • Add output for substation power transformer? Secondary line losses?
    • I2R revision?
    • Should there be any additional requirements for users (Training or Oversight)?
  • What should the measure life(s) be?
  • Is load shape analysis on the right track?
    • Pursue 8760 data (Pilot Demonstration and Load Research) for better load shape analysis?
      • Delivered Energy Savings Shape will be based on Load Research 8760 data (∆kW)
        • Depending on results, may have multiple load shapes for different mixes of heating system types
      • I2R Energy Savings Shape will be based on???
      • Transformer No-Load Loss Saving Shape will be based on Pilot Demo 8760 data (∆V)