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Tissues - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Tissues. Students, Please note: This is a rough draft of a power point that has not been proofread or redrafted. I am sorry for any spelling, grammatical errors, etc. It is basically a rough draft for key points of the tissues to go along with my lecture-lab presentation of the tissues.

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  • Students,

  • Please note: This is a rough draft of a power point that has not been proofread or redrafted. I am sorry for any spelling, grammatical errors, etc.

  • It is basically a rough draft for key points of the tissues to go along with my lecture-lab presentation of the tissues.

  • It does not contain everything you need to know.

  • It is merely a guide.

  • Please use your objectives and exercises to study thoroughly for the lab quizzes.

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  • Epithelial tissue

  • Lines internal body cavities and passage ways; covers body surfaces

  • Usually named after the cell shape

  • 2 questions

    • How many layers of epithelial cells are present?

      • One-simple

      • More than one-stratified

    • What is the shape of the cells at the apical surface( the top of the cell which faces the lumen or body surface) ?

      • Squamous-flat like a fried egg( yolk is the nucleus)

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  • Flat shape allows easy diffusion; filtration, secretion-reduces friction

  • cuboidal epithelium: ( cube-shaped) ( die-one) shaped like an ice cube; large round , centrally located nucleus

  • Columnar epithelium (column-shaped) oblong or oval shaped nucleus is generally located at the base of the cell

  • Exceptions

    • Pseudostratified columnar epithelium

      • Pseudo-false

      • “falsely stratified”

      • Looks like multiple layers of cells , but each cell actually touches the basement membrane

        • Nuclei of cells are at different layers

          • Note: these cells are ciliated in the trachea, nasal cavity and bronchi.

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  • Transitional secretion-reduces friction epithelium –what does transition mean?

  • Relaxed bladder-dome-shaped cells at the surface; note: nuclei are key feature-note shape and stain

  • Bladder, ureters, urethra, renal pelvis-things that have to change shape

  • Stretched-cells appear more flattened at the surface.

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Connective Tissue secretion-reduces friction

  • Connective tissue is for structural support of other tissues and organs. It is the most abundant type of tissue. It is composed of cells, fibers , and ground substance.

  • The two most common types of proteins are elastin and collagen. Collagen-strength (tendons) elastin(stretch) (aorta)

  • Elastin- stains black with our slides.

  • Collagen- stains pink or blue with our slides.

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  • Loose connective Tissue secretion-reduces friction

    • Areolar connective tissue-collagen, elastin, and fibroblasts—make collagen

    • Adipose connective tissue-adipocytes-fat cells-note: uninuclear cells; all the fat pushes the nucleus to the side of the cell.

    • Reticular connective tissue: cobwebs; network of reticular fibers which help to support many different cell types.

      • Spleen, lymph nodes, liver, kidney

      • Supportive net-like structure for many different cell types

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  • Dense secretion-reduces friction regular connective tissue

    • Fibrous connective tissue-collage fibers make-up most of dense regular connective tissue

    • Tendons- The Achille’s tendon (Calcaneal tendon) is the strongest tendon in the body.

      • Regular arrangement of collagen fibers

      • Slightly wavy appearance

      • Flattened fibroblast nuclei

    • Dense irregular connective tissue

      • Random arrangement of collagenfibers; patchwork

      • Dermis of the skin

        • Can be pulled in many different directions; pull on your skin-it pulls in many different directions

        • Helps resist stresses applied

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  • Cartilage( secretion-reduces frictionno blood supply)

  • Key feature: Chondrocytes with in lacunae

  • Chondro: cartilage

  • Can tell the different types based on the matrix-firm gel material that contains protein fibers, etc.

  • Swiss cheese, Geico commercial or eyes staring at you!

    • Hyaline cartilageconnective tissue: smooth purple matrix

    • Elastic cartilageconnective tissue: black elastin fibers

    • Fibrocartilageconnective tissue; note:collagen fibers stain blue on these slides

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  • Elastic connective Tissue secretion-reduces friction

    • Places where you need stretch-Aorta; helps control

      blood Pressure; stretch and recoil of the tissue.

    • Bone Connective tissue

    • Looks like tree trunks –osteon of bone( compact bone)

      • Osteocytes



        Hard substance composed of calcium phosphate and collagen fibers

    • Blood connective tissue

      • Note the diversity of connective tissue; tissues as hard as bone and something with the fluidity of blood

      • Erythrocytes: mature red blood cells are anuclear; shape and function; transport respiratory gases

        • Erythro:red

        • Cyte:cell

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  • Leukocytes secretion-reduces friction

    • Leuko-white

    • Cyte-cell

    • Have a dark staining nucleus

    • 5 specific types-211 material

    • Involved in immune responses; defense

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Muscle secretion-reduces friction

  • Skeletal muscle

    • Striations, multinucleate; stacked logs with zebra stripes; many nuclei / cell; regular arrangement; voluntary

  • Cardiac muscle

    • Intercalated disc- specialized junction-allows passage of ions, yet keeps the cells in close contact or glued together so that contraction can occur in an orderly fashion; special gap and desmosome junction

    • Usually uninuclear

    • -interbranching pattern-Purkinje system or intrinsic conduction system; involuntary

  • Smooth Muscle

    • Involuntary; no striations; staggered, tapered cells; usually oval shaped nuclei

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Nervous Tissue secretion-reduces friction

  • Conduct electrical impulse; fast response

  • Functional unit: neuron

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Integumentary System secretion-reduces friction

  • Skin

  • Largest organ in the body

  • Three regions (layers) of the skin

    • EpidermisEpi- upon, derm-: skin

      • Stratified squamous epithelium

    • Dermis

    • Hypodermis(subcutaneous layer)

      • Hypo-under, below

      • Mainly adipose connective tissue

      • Also has a good supply of blood vessels so subcutaneous injections are given with a hypodermic needle

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  • Five cell layers of the epidermis secretion-reduces friction

  • “Can Lucy give Some blood?”

    • From superficial to deep

  • Thick Skin

    • Stratum CorneumDead cells ; water proofing layer; protection; slough off

    • Stratum lucidum What does lucid mean?

    • Stratum granulosumLook for black granules.

    • Stratum spinosumSpine-like appearance of interconnecting cells

    • Stratum basaleBottom layer of cells; in contact with basement membrane –one cell layer

    • Thin skin does not have a stratum lucidum.

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  • Two regions of the dermis secretion-reduces friction

    • Papillary region

      • Upper one fifth of the dermis

      • Consists primarily of loose connective tissue.

      • Note: Meissner’s corpuscles are in the papilla of the dermis.

        • Function in fine touch

    • Reticular region

      • Deeper four fifths of the dermis

      • Consists primarily of dense irregular connective tissue

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Sensory Receptors and Sweat glands secretion-reduces friction

  • Meissner’s corpuscles: tactile; fine touch

  • Pacinian corpuscle: deep pressure; “ lamellated corpuscle”; “ dried out sliced onion”; located near the surface of the hypodermis or deep in the reticular layer of the dermis

    Sudoriferous Glands

    Exocrineglands-secrete their secretions into ducts

    The ducts are lined by stratified cuboidal epithelium-usually only about 2 cell layers


    eccrine: merocrine; widely distributed; secrete a watery secretion

    apocrine: armpits, groin, nipples; secrete both proteins and lipids; “bacteria food”; body odor

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Hair secretion-reduces friction

  • Sebaceous glands- often associated with hair follicles; secrete an oily secretion called sebum

  • Arrector pili muscle; smooth muscle; involuntary; “goose bumps”

  • Hair follicle; makes the hair shaft

  • Hair root