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MASSIVE BLACK HOLES: formation & evolution. Martin Rees Cambridge University. Themes of this symposium. 1*. Radiation, ,accretion jets, winds, etc --- phenomenology and models. 3C31:. Optical. Radio. Themes of this symposium.

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Massive black holes formation evolution

MASSIVE BLACK HOLES:formation & evolution

Martin Rees

Cambridge University


Themes of this symposium
Themes of this symposium

1*. Radiation, ,accretion jets, winds, etc --- phenomenology and models.


3C31:

Optical

Radio


Themes of this symposium1
Themes of this symposium

1*. Radiation, ,accretion jets, winds, etc --- phenomenology and models.

2*. Do ‘holes’ obey the Kerr metric (testing strong-field GR, etc)?

* straightforward scaling laws between

stellar-mass and supermassive holes


Themes of this symposium2
Themes of this symposium

1*. Radiation, ,accretion jets, winds, etc --- phenomenology and models.

2*. Do ‘holes’ obey the Kerr metric (testing strong-field GR, etc)?

  • Population and demography of supermassive holes: how do they form and evolve?

    * straightforward scaling laws between

    stellar-mass and supermassive holes



Massive black holes?

Giant Ellipticals/S0s

Spirals

Dwarfs

Globular

Clusters

Yes

Yes but black hole

mass scales with

bulge mass not

total mass

Some

at least

Maybe


Is this really tighter?

Kormendy 2003

bulge mass

stellar velocity

dispersion of the bulge

black hole mass scales with


Observational progress in demography and evolution of holes1

Observational progress in demography and evolution of holes

Ubiquity of holes in galaxies

Feedback from hole to galaxy


New clues from deep chandra observations of perseus
New clues from deep Chandra observations of Perseus

Fabian et al 03a,b


Observational progress in demography and evolution of holes2

Observational progress in demography and evolution of holes

Ubiquity of holes in galaxies

Feedback from hole to galaxy

Objects discovered at z > 6 .


A very early assembly epoch for QSOs

The highest redshift quasar currently known

SDSS 1148+3251 at z=6.4

has estimates of the SMBH mass

MBH=2-6 x109 Msun(Willott et al 2003, Barth et al 2003)

As massive as the largest SMBHs today, but when the Universe was <1 Gyr old!


THE HIGHEST-REDSHIFT QUASARS

Becker et al. (2000)


Brief History of the Universe

Fluctuation generator

Fluctuation amplifier

Hot Dense Smooth

Cool Rarefied Clumpy

(Graphics from Gary Hinshaw/WMAP team)


First ‘seed’ black holes?

Hierarchical Galaxy Formation:

small scales collapse first

and merge later to form more massive systems

BARYONS: need to COOL

First ‘action’ happens in the smallest halos with deep enough potential wells to allow this

(at z~20-30)

courtesy of M. Kuhlen


MBH~103-106 Msun

Viscous transport + supermassive star (e.g. Haehnelt & Rees 1993, Eisenstein & Loeb 1995, Bromm & Loeb 2003, Koushiappas et al. 2004)

Efficient viscous angular momentum

transport + efficient gas confinement

Bar-unstable self-gravitating gas + large “quasistar” (Begelman, Volonteri & Rees 2006)

Transport angular momentum on the

dynamical timescale, process cascades

Formation of a BH in the core of a low

entropy quasistar ~104-106 Msun

 The BH can swallow the quasistar

First black holes in pregalactic halos

z≈10-30

MBH~100-600 Msun

PopIII stars remnants

(Madau & Rees 2001,

Volonteri, Haardt & Madau 2003)

Simulations suggest that the first stars are massive M~100-600 Msun

(Abel et al., Bromm et al.)

Metal free dying stars with M>260Msun leaveremnant BHswith Mseed≥100Msun (Fryer, Woosley & Heger)


Supermassive holes grow from seedpregalactic BHs. These seeds are incorporated in larger and larger halos, accreting gas and dynamically interacting after mergers.

All models for first BHs predict a biased formation: in the HIGHEST PEAKS OF DENSITY FLUCTUATIONSat z~20-30


Descendant

Mh= 2 x 1015M

Quasars end up in cD galaxies at centres of rich galaxy clusters today

Mh= 21015M

Dark matter

Galaxies

Quasar host

Mh= 5 x 012M

Mh= 51012M M*= 1011M

SFR = 235 M/yr MBH= 108M


Formation and evolution of supermassive binaries
Formation and evolution of supermassive binaries

1. Dynamical friction

t  a

2. Binary hardening

due to stars

or

accretion of gas

3. Gravitational radiation

t  a4

Do they merge?


LISA

Will see mergers

of 105 –107 Msol

black holes

2011?



Dependence of merger rate on

mass of minihalos in which first holes form


Gravitational rocket

binary center of mass recoil during coalescence due to asymmetric emission of GW

(e.g. Fitchett 1983, Favata et al 2004, Blanchet et al 2005, Baker et al 2006)

vrec ≤ 250 km/s

GR SIMULATIONS

ELLIPTICAL GALAXIES

1000

«vesc from today galaxies

100

Vrecoil (km/s)

Vesc (km/s)

≈vesc from high-z ones

10

DWARF GALAXIES/

MINIHALOS

mass

1013

109


at z >10 more than 80% of merging MBHs can be kicked out of their halo

(Volonteri & Rees 2006)

the gravitational rocket effect is a threat at the highest redshifts, when host halos are small and have shallow potential wells

Can the merger process start early enough to

Allow build-up of supermassive holes?


Build-up of holes by accretion (a) Is there a continuous gas supply from host halo? (b) When supply is super-critical:, is ’excess’ radiation trapped and/or? accretion inefficient, allowing rapid growth in hole’s mass ? Or is there a radiation-driven outflow?(spin?).


NOTE; Classic argument of Soltan (1982), which compares total mass of holes with total radiative output, implies that most of the mass is gained via ‘efficient’ accretion.

But most ot the ‘e-folds’ (eg first 10% of mass) could be gained rapidly via inefficient accretion

rqso(0)=2.1x105[0.1(1-e)/e]M Mpc-3

rSMBH=2.5-3.5x105M Mpc-3

~0.2 @ z<5

Elvis, Risaliti & Zamorani 2002

from Yu & Tremaine 2002


super-Eddington accretion total mass of holes with total radiative output, implies that most of the mass is gained via ‘efficient’ accretion.

Eddington accretion ε=0.2


Are massive black holes rapidly spinning? (affects maximal accretion efficiency, minimum variability timescale, importance of Blandford-Znajek energy extraction, etc)

Spin is modified by BH mergers and the coupling with the accretion disc

mergers can spin BHs either up or down;

alignment with the disc spins up


spin evolution by BH mergers only accretion efficiency, minimum variability timescale, importance of Blandford-Znajek energy extraction, etc)

spin evolution by BH mergers AND accretion


1. Mass of the BH seed accretion efficiency, minimum variability timescale, importance of Blandford-Znajek energy extraction, etc)

PopIII stars remnants

MBH~100-600 Msun

Gas collapse via Post-Newtonian instability MBH~105-106 Msun

2. BH mergers

Positive contribution:

build-up of high masses

Negative contribution

(gravitational rocket)

3. Accretion rate

Eddington-limited

(continuous or intermittent)

Super-Eddington

(Excess swallowed or expelled?)


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