Coping with job insecurity a longitudinal interpretative phenomenological analysis ipa study
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Coping with Job Insecurity: A Longitudinal Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis (IPA) Study. PhD Candidate: Ina Lempereur First Promoter: Profs. Dr. Hans De Witte Second Promoter: Profs. Dr. Jan de Mol. Structure of Presentation. What? How? Why? Discussion, ideas, thoughts ….

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Coping with Job Insecurity: A Longitudinal Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis (IPA) Study

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Coping with job insecurity a longitudinal interpretative phenomenological analysis ipa study

Coping with Job Insecurity

Coping with Job Insecurity: A Longitudinal Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis (IPA) Study

PhD Candidate: Ina Lempereur

First Promoter: Profs. Dr. Hans De Witte

Second Promoter: Profs. Dr. Jan de Mol


Structure of presentation

Structure of Presentation

Coping with Job Insecurity

  • What?

  • How?

  • Why?

  • Discussion, ideas, thoughts …..


Coping with job insecurity a longitudinal interpretative phenomenological analysis ipa study

What?

Coping with Job Insecurity


Coping with job insecurity a longitudinal interpretative phenomenological analysis ipa study

Coping with Job Insecurity

  • My PhD is an in-Depth Exploration of the experience of job insecurity among commercial airline pilots. The research question that I aim to answer through this study is:

  • How do commercial airline pilots experience job insecurity and how do they cope with this insecurity?


A paradigm shift since the 80 s

A Paradigm Shift since the 80’s

Coping with Job Insecurity

  • From job security … the perceived belief that one’s job is safe, secure, and perhaps even guaranteed for life.

  • To job insecurity … fear of losing one’s job and/or the fear of loss of some aspects of the job.


Definition of ji

Definition of JI

Coping with Job Insecurity

  • Job insecurity is essentially a perceptual phenomenon that occurs within a complex employment environment (Greenhalgh & Rosenblatt, 1984; Jacobson, 1991).


The job insecurity experience

The Job Insecurity Experience

Coping with Job Insecurity

  • Objective work situation

  • Subjective perception of the situation

  • Specificindividual’s life situation

  • Personal characteristics

  • Appraisal of the complex situation

  • Coping behaviour used through this experience

Ingredients:


Coping with job insecurity a longitudinal interpretative phenomenological analysis ipa study

Coping with Job Insecurity

Job insecurity lies somewhere between full secure employment and job loss (McLaren, 2001; De Witte, 2005).


The documented effects of job insecurity

The Documented Effects of Job Insecurity

Coping with Job Insecurity

  • High anxiety & depression levels

  • sleeping problems

  • distress

  • effects also tend to transfer to the non-work setting

  • attitudinal changes at work such as dissatisfaction with the present job and the propensity to leave it voluntarily (Hellgren, Sverke, & Isaksson, 1999)

  • more stressful than job loss itself (De Witte, 1999; Hartley, Jacobson, Klandermans, & van Vuuren, 1991; Dekker & Schaufeli, 1995)


More documented effects

More Documented Effects ….

Coping with Job Insecurity

  • marked by periods of worry, anger, anxiety, fear, blaming, apathy (Bartrum, 2006)

  • hostility (Greenglass & Burke, 2000)

  • psychological withdrawal behaviours similar to the grieving process (Katcher, 1978; Strange, 1977; Greenhalgh, 1979; in Greenhalgh & Rosenblatt, 1984).


And more effects

… and more effects!!

Coping with Job Insecurity

  • In the short term, responses to the stress of job insecurity could be emotional (anxiety, tension, dissatisfaction), physiological (elevated health rate, increased catecholamine secretion) and behavioral (drug use, absenteeism, lack of concentration);

  • In the longer term, the accumulation of these responses could result in adverse consequences for physical health

    (Heaney & colleagues, 1994, p. 1432)


Coping with job insecurity a longitudinal interpretative phenomenological analysis ipa study

How?

Coping with Job Insecurity


My phd three related but independent studies

My PhD: Three related but independent studies

Coping with Job Insecurity

  • Qualitative

  • Longitudinal

  • Using investigator triangulation


Coping with job insecurity a longitudinal interpretative phenomenological analysis ipa study

IPA

Coping with Job Insecurity

  • Interpretative phenomenological analysis: IPA, developed by Jonathan Smith, Professor of Psychology, Birkbeck University of London, is an experiential qualitative approach to research in psychology and the human, health and social sciences.


Ipa informed by three philosophical concepts

IPA informed by three philosophical concepts:

Coping with Job Insecurity

  • Phenomenology

  • Hermeneutics

  • Idiography

  • Suggested Text: Smith, J.A., Flowers, P., & Larkin, M. (2009). Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis. Theory, Method, and Research. USA: Sage.


A longitudinal study

A Longitudinal Study

Coping with Job Insecurity

Persons need to be seen over time within the framework of their life stories :

  • What is important or unimportant in their lives;

  • Ways of thinking about themselves and the world;

  • Changes and transitions that threaten existing psychological structures; and

  • Patterns of coping with problems of living.


Study 1 investigator triangulation

Study 1: Investigator Triangulation

Coping with Job Insecurity

  • The main researcher will conduct a semi-structured interview with one participant, transcribe the interview verbatim and analyse the interview;

  • A second researcher will use the same interview guide to conduct another semi-structured interview with another participant, transcribe the interview verbatim and analyze the interview; the second researcher will be completely ‘naive’ to airline crews thus decreasing the possibility of bias;

  • The promoter and the co-promoter will, individually, re-analyze both interviews;

  • The main researcher will analyze the whole work.


Coping with job insecurity a longitudinal interpretative phenomenological analysis ipa study

Why?

Coping with Job Insecurity


My phd in context of existing literature

My PhD in context of existing literature

Coping with Job Insecurity

  • I choose to conduct a qualitative study as:

  • Most effort in job insecurity research has been directed towards consequences and relatively less attention given to work on construct conceptualization ….

  • (Mauno & Kinnunen, 2002)


My phd in context

My PhD in context

Coping with Job Insecurity

  • I choose to explore both negative and positive effects of JI as ….

  • Any possible positive aspect of job insecurity has not received much attention …

  • (Bartrum, 2006)


My phd in context1

My PhD in context

Coping with Job Insecurity

I choose to do research with commercial airline pilots as my sample as:

This area of research in aviation psychology remains relatively unexplored within the active pilot population.


Coping with job insecurity a longitudinal interpretative phenomenological analysis ipa study

Coping with Job Insecurity

  • And yet pilots are not unfamiliar to job insecurity experiences especially when one considers:

    • The present vulnerability of the airline industry

    • The rigorous proficiency, physical and psychological regular checks


Pilot evaluation events are an ongoing process

Pilot Evaluation Events are an ongoing process

Coping with Job Insecurity

  • Recurrent checks: proficiency and medical

  • Monitored performance: operational management, fellow crewmembers, & on-board monitoring computer

  • Subject to random blood and/or urine checks before-after operating a flight

  • Airline industry encourages use of formal or confidential self-reporting system to report any behaviour that can jeopardize flight safety

  • Regulatory authorities impose on all pilots to self-assess one’s physical and mental condition before operating a flight.


Safety as the goal of the evaluation system

Safety as the goal of the Evaluation System

Coping with Job Insecurity

The fact that universally all pilots are regularly evaluated according to international standards is meant to ensure that no matter the age, gender, race, nationality, or airline, commercial airline pilots are in good health and qualified to do their job. And yet ….


When evaluation is placed in the context of a pilot s life its consequences may be substantial

When evaluation is placed in the context of a pilot’s life, its consequences may be substantial

Coping with Job Insecurity

...every time pilots are put to test they risk failure and thus possible temporary or permanent loss of license. Loss of license may mean loss of job, loss of income, and also possible loss of professional status and the right to ever practice their profession.


Being a commercial airline pilot is the most stressful job in america this year

Being a commercial airline pilot is the most stressful job in America this year…

Coping with Job Insecurity

  • Limited control over events

  • Depend heavily on other professionals

  • Experience big swings in stress

  • Profession affected by the economy with layoffs, high oil prices, and cost cutting in the airline industry threatening pay raises and job prospects.

  • Reference: CareerCast.com


Coping with job insecurity a longitudinal interpretative phenomenological analysis ipa study

Coping with Job Insecurity

  • Discussion, ideas, thoughts ……


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