Sponges cnidarians and platyhelminthes
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Sponges, Cnidarians and Platyhelminthes. BIOL 1407. Invertebrates. Animals without backbones Most animals. Sponges. Porifera ≠ clade Two possible phyla: Silicea (most sponges) Calcarea Photo Credit: BIOL 1407 Student. Characteristics of Sponges. Cellular organization

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Sponges, Cnidarians and Platyhelminthes

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Sponges cnidarians and platyhelminthes

Sponges, Cnidarians and Platyhelminthes

BIOL 1407


Invertebrates

Invertebrates

  • Animals without backbones

  • Most animals


Sponges

Sponges

  • Porifera ≠ clade

  • Two possible phyla:

    • Silicea (most sponges)

    • Calcarea

  • Photo Credit: BIOL 1407 Student


Characteristics of sponges

Characteristics of Sponges

  • Cellular organization

  • Radial or no symmetry

  • Photo Credit: BIOL 1407 Student


Characteristics of sponges1

Characteristics of Sponges

  • Filter feeders

  • Aquatic

  • Sessile

  • Photo Credit: Mila Zinkova, 2008, Wikimedia Commons


Cell types

Cell Types

  • Choanocytes

  • Amoebocytes

  • Epidermal cells

  • Porocytes (in some)


Choanoflagellates and choanocytes

Choanoflagellates and Choanocytes


Skeleton

Skeleton

  • Spicules

    • Calcium carbonate

    • Silica

  • Spongin

    • Collagen protein

  • Photo Credit for bath sponges: Alcinoe, 2005, Wikimedia Commons

  • Photo Credit for Venus’ Flower Basket: NOAA, 2002


Phylum cnidaria

Phylum Cnidaria

  • Hydroids (Hydra, Obelia)

    • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=12OmszObAkM&feature=related

  • Corals and Sea Anemones

  • Jellies

  • Cubozoans (sea wasps)


Hydroids

Hydroids

Photo Credit for Portuguese Man o’ War:

UNK Vieques 2008 Field Trip


Corals and sea anemones

Corals and Sea Anemones

Photo Credit for Hard Coral: BIOL 1407 Student


Jellies and cubozoans

Jellies and Cubozoans


Characteristics of cnidarians

Characteristics of Cnidarians

  • Radial symmetry

  • Diploblastic

    • Epidermis

    • Gastrodermis

    • Mesoglea

  • Gastrovascular Cavity

  • Tentacles with cnidocytes


Two body forms

Two Body Forms


Exchange processes

Exchange Processes

  • Body wall  Two layers of cells

  • Cell transport occurs at both layers

    • Water Balance

    • Ion Balance

    • Waste Disposal

    • Gas Exchange


Digestion

Digestion

  • Two forms

    • Intracellular

    • Extracellular

  • Extracellular digestion  major evolutionary advance

  • Allows animals to eat things larger than their cells

  • Video:http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=M3VSvyxrwXA


Intracellular vs extracellular digestion

Intracellular vs. Extracellular Digestion


Transport

Transport

  • As cnidarian moves, water moves through GVC

  • GVC serves as transport system

  • Video: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=oCJwHogXtKE&eurl=http://video.aol.com/video-detail/jellyfish-swimming-monterey-bay-aquarium/1285587528


Platyhelminthes

Platyhelminthes

  • Free-living Flatworms

    • Planarians

    • Marine Flatworms

  • Flukes

  • Tapeworms


Planarian and marine flatworm

Planarian and Marine Flatworm

Photo Credit of planarian: Dr. Stephen Bostic, 2008


Fluke

Fluke


Tapeworm

Tapeworm


Characteristics of platyhelminths

Characteristics of Platyhelminths

  • Bilateral Symmetry

  • Triploblastic

  • Acoelomate

  • Gastrovascular Cavity

    • Extensive branching

  • Flat body

  • Photo Credit: Richard Ling, 2005, Flickr


Exchange processes1

Exchange Processes

  • Body is flat and thin  ↑ Surface Area

  • Highly branched GVC  ↑ Surface Area

  • Cell transport occurs at both places

    • Water Balance

    • Ion Balance

    • Waste Disposal

    • Gas Exchange

Photo Credit of planarian:

Dr. Stephen Bostic, 2008


Transport1

Transport

  • GVC serves as transport system

  • Video: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=A6N8KZqGAJg&feature=related

  • Photo Credit: Richard Ling, 2006, Flickr


Excretory system protonephridia

Excretory System: Protonephridia


Centralized nervous system

Centralized Nervous System


The end

The End

Unless otherwise specified, all images in this presentation came from:

Campbell, et al. 2008. Biology, 8th ed. Pearson Benjamin Cummings.


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