A guide to software 4e
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A+ Guide to Software, 4e. Chapter 1 Introducing Operating Systems. Objectives. Learn about the various operating systems and the differences between them Learn how an OS interfaces with users, files and folders, applications, and hardware

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A guide to software 4e

A+ Guide to Software, 4e

Chapter 1

Introducing Operating Systems


Objectives

Objectives

  • Learn about the various operating systems and the differences between them

  • Learn how an OS interfaces with users, files and folders, applications, and hardware

  • Learn about a few OS tools you can use to examine and maintain a system

A+ Guide to Software, 4e


Introduction

Introduction

  • Personal computers have changed our lives

  • You will gain a deeper understanding of the operating system

    • Customize

    • Troubleshoot

    • Optimize

  • Learn different operating systems

    • What they do

    • How they work to control the hardware

A+ Guide to Software, 4e


Operating systems past and present

Operating Systems Past and Present

  • What an operating system (OS) does:

    • Manages hardware

    • Runs applications

    • Provides an interface for users

    • Retrieves and manipulates files

  • The OS can be analogized to a “middleman”

  • A computer needs only one operating system

  • Operating systems have evolved to a complex form

A+ Guide to Software, 4e


A guide to software 4e

Figure 1-1 Users and applications depend on the OS to relate to all applications and hardware components

A+ Guide to Software, 4e


Dos disk operating system

DOS (Disk Operating System)

  • The first OS used by IBM computers/compatibles

  • Where DOS can still be found:

    • Specialized systems using older applications

    • On troubleshooting disks or CDs

  • Windows 3.x and DOS

    • Windows 3.x provided a graphical interface

    • Underlying OS functions were performed by DOS

  • Windows 9x/Me uses DOS in the underlying OS

  • Windows XP/2000 run DOS emulation programs

A+ Guide to Software, 4e


A guide to software 4e

Figure 1-3 Windows 3.x was layered between DOS and the user and applications to provide a graphics interface for the user and a multitasking environment for applications

A+ Guide to Software, 4e


Windows 9x me

Windows 9x/Me

  • Refers to Windows 95, Windows 98, Windows Me

  • Combine a DOS core with graphical user interface

  • Designed to bridge legacy and newer technologies

    • Backward-compatible with older systems

    • Able to accommodate new technologies

  • Cautionary note on minimum requirements

    • May differ for upgrades and new installations

    • May differ for installation and run-time operation

A+ Guide to Software, 4e


A guide to software 4e

Figure 1-5 Windows 9x/Me is the bridge from DOS to Windows NT

A+ Guide to Software, 4e


Windows nt

Windows NT

  • Two versions of Windows NT (New Technology):

    • Windows NT Workstation for desktops

    • Windows NT Server to control a network

  • Best known feature: new OS core replacing DOS

  • Avoid installing Windows NT

    • Windows NT introduced many new problems

    • Problems only solved in later versions of Windows

A+ Guide to Software, 4e


Windows 2000

Windows 2000

  • Upgrades Windows NT (both desktop and server)

  • Improvements over Windows NT:

    • A more stable environment

    • Support for Plug and Play

    • Device Manager, Recovery Console, Active Directory

    • Better network support

    • Features specifically targeting notebook computers

  • OS includes only qualified hardware and software

  • Windows 2000 is being phased out

A+ Guide to Software, 4e


Windows xp

Windows XP

  • Integrates Windows 9x/Me and Windows 2000

  • Two main versions: Home Edition and Professional

  • Noteworthy new features:

    • Allows two users to logon and open applications

    • Incorporates Windows Messenger and Media Player

    • Adds advanced security, such as Windows Firewall

  • Hardware requirements

    • 64 MB RAM (128 MB recommended)

    • 1.5 GB free hard drive space (2 GB recommended)

    • 233-MHz CPU speed (300-MHz recommended)

A+ Guide to Software, 4e


A guide to software 4e

Figure 1-8 The Windows XP desktop and Start menu

A+ Guide to Software, 4e


Windows vista

Windows Vista

  • Next generation of Windows operating systems

  • Code-named Longhorn

  • Noteworthy new features:

    • New graphical interface

    • Revamped engine

    • A new interface between it and applications

  • Scheduled release dates:

    • November 2006 for business editions

    • January 2007 for consumer editions

A+ Guide to Software, 4e


Windows server 2003

Windows Server 2003

  • Refers to a suite of Microsoft operating systems:

    • Windows Small Business Server 2003

    • Storage Server 2003

    • Server 2003 Web Edition

    • Server 2003 Standard Edition

    • Server 2003 Enterprise Edition

    • Server 2003 Datacenter Edition

  • Not designed for use in a PC

  • Not covered in this text

A+ Guide to Software, 4e


A guide to software 4e

UNIX

  • Comprises a class of operating systems

  • UNIX versions referred to as flavors or distributions

  • Chief uses:

    • Controlling networks

    • Supporting Internet-based applications

A+ Guide to Software, 4e


Linux

Linux

  • Variation on UNIX created by Linus Torvalds

  • OS kernel and source code are freely distributed

  • Popular distributions:

    • SuSE (www.novell.com/linux/suse)

    • RedHat (www.redhat.com)

    • TurboLinux (www.turbolinux.com)

  • Used as both a server and a desktop

  • X Windows: GUI shells for UNIX and Linux

A+ Guide to Software, 4e


A guide to software 4e

OS/2

  • Jointly developed by IBM and Microsoft

  • Chiefly used in certain types of networks

  • Part of OS/2 was incorporated into Windows NT

  • OS/2 is not covered in this book

A+ Guide to Software, 4e


Mac os

Mac OS

  • First introduced in 1984 with Macintosh computers

  • Current version: Mac OS X (ten)

  • Mac OS X can work on some Intel-based computers

  • Markets: education, desktop publishing, graphics

  • Noteworthy features:

    • Support for graphics and multimedia capabilities

    • Use of the Finder program to provide the desktop

    • Superior Plug and Play capabilities

    • Excellent support for multitasking

A+ Guide to Software, 4e


A guide to software 4e

Figure 1-10 The Mac OS X desktop is intuitive and easy to use

A+ Guide to Software, 4e


What an operating system does

What an Operating System Does

  • Four functions common to all operating systems:

    • Providing a user interface

    • Managing files

    • Managing applications

    • Managing hardware

  • All OSs also have similar core components

A+ Guide to Software, 4e


Operating system components

Operating System Components

  • Components common to all OSs: shell and kernel

  • The shell exposes functions to users and applications

    • Example 1: enables user to select a CD

    • Example 2: enables application to print a document

  • The kernel (core) interacts with hardware devices

    • Example: passes a print request to a printer device

  • Registry database and initialization files

    • Used to store configuration information in Windows

A+ Guide to Software, 4e


A guide to software 4e

Figure 1-11 Inside an operating system, different components perform various functions

A+ Guide to Software, 4e


An os provides a user interface

An OS Provides a User Interface

  • Sequence of events occurring after PC is turned on

    • The operating system is loaded

    • Running OS provides an interface (desktop)

    • OS awaits an event, such as a double-click

  • A user can initiate an event in several ways:

    • Click a menu item

    • Enter a command in Run dialog or command console

    • Double-click an icon

A+ Guide to Software, 4e


A guide to software 4e

Figure 1-12 Enter command lines in a Command Prompt window

A+ Guide to Software, 4e


A guide to software 4e

Figure 1-13 A menu-driven interface: Windows Explorer in Windows XP

A+ Guide to Software, 4e


An os manages files and folders

An OS Manages Files and Folders

  • File system: organizes files and folders

  • File systems used by Windows for hard drives:

    • File Allocation Table (FAT): tracks disk space usage

    • New Technology File System (NTFS): replacing FAT

  • Organization of a hard drive or floppy disk

    • Platter contains concentric tracks

    • Track contains 512 byte sectors

    • Cluster contains one or more sectors

    • Cluster is the smallest unit on disk for storing a file

A+ Guide to Software, 4e


A guide to software 4e

Figure 1-14 A hard drive or floppy disk is divided into tracks and sectors; several sectors make one cluster

A+ Guide to Software, 4e


Files and directories

Files and Directories

  • File system hierarchy:

    • Directories (called folders in Windows)

    • Subdirectories (child directories)

    • Files

  • Directories can contain subdirectories and files

  • Directory table: lists subdirectories and files

  • Root directory: directory for a logical drive; e.g., C:\

  • Path: drive, directories, filename, and file extension

    • Example: C:\wp\data\myfile.txt points to “myfile”

A+ Guide to Software, 4e


A guide to software 4e

Figure 1-16 A hard drive is organized into directories and subdirectories that contain files

A+ Guide to Software, 4e


Partitions and logical drives on a hard drive

Partitions and Logical Drives on a Hard Drive

  • Hard drives are organized into partitions

  • Two types of partitions

    • Primary: can only have one logical drive; e.g., C:\

    • Extended: can have one or more logical drives

  • Logical drive (sometimes called a volume)

    • Formatted using a file system

    • Has a root directory and subdirectories

  • Disk Management tool

    • Used to create/view partitions, format logical drives

A+ Guide to Software, 4e


A guide to software 4e

Figure 1-19 Use the Windows 2000/XP Disk Management utility to see how a hard drive is partitioned

A+ Guide to Software, 4e


An os manages applications

An OS Manages Applications

  • The OS installs and runs all other PC software

  • Application: software providing services for users

  • Applications rely on the OS for support operations

    • Example: MS word relies on OS to manage memory

  • Applications are typically tailored to a single OS

    • Ensure that OS is suitable for a given application

A+ Guide to Software, 4e


Installing application software

Installing Application Software

  • Sources of application software:

    • Internet, CDs, DVDs, or floppy disks

  • Installation program is provided by application

  • Tasks performed by installation program:

    • Folders are created on the hard drive

    • Files are copied to the folders

    • For Windows, entries are made in Windows registry

    • Icons are usually placed on desktop

    • For Windows, entries are added to the Start menu

A+ Guide to Software, 4e


Launching application software using the windows desktop

Launching Application Software Using the Windows Desktop

  • An application has to be started before use

    • You run, load, launch, or execute the application

  • Four ways to run software:

    • Use a shortcut icon

    • Use the Start menu

    • Use the Run command

    • Use Windows Explorer or My Computer

A+ Guide to Software, 4e


Real 16 bit protected 32 bit and long 64 bit operating modes

Real (16-bit), Protected (32-bit), and Long (64-bit) Operating Modes

  • Bit type: number of bits simultaneously processed

  • Real (16-bit) mode

    • Exposes hardware to application (no longer used)

    • Example: DOS

  • Protected (32-bit) and Long (64-bit) modes

    • OS controls how an application accesses hardware

    • Preemptive multitasking is supported

    • Example: Windows XP Professional x64 Edition

  • Multiprocessing involves multiple CPUs

A+ Guide to Software, 4e


16 bit 32 bit and 64 bit software

16-bit, 32-bit, and 64-bit Software

  • 16-bit software

    • Written for Windows 3.x

    • Data access is 16 bits at a time

  • 32-bit programs

    • Written for Windows NT/2000/XP and Windows 9x/Me

  • 64-bit programs

    • Written for Windows XP Professional x64 Edition

  • Most software today is 32-bit or 64-bit

A+ Guide to Software, 4e


An os manages hardware

An OS Manages Hardware

  • OS interacts with hardware using drivers or BIOS

  • Software falls into three categories:

    • Device drivers or the BIOS

    • Operating system

    • Application software

A+ Guide to Software, 4e


A guide to software 4e

Figure 1-24 An OS relates to hardware by way of BIOS and device drivers

A+ Guide to Software, 4e


How an os uses device drivers to manage devices

How an OS Uses Device Drivers to Manage Devices

  • Device drivers: specify how to interact with a device

    • Example: a driver links a computer to a digital camera

  • Drivers are provided by OS and device manufacturer

  • Three kinds of drivers (corresponds to a mode)

    • 16-bit real, 32-bit protected, and 64-bit long

  • Device drivers in Windows

    • Before installation, verify Microsoft has tested device

    • Registry stores information about 32-bit device drivers

    • Updated drivers are available at manufacturer’s site

A+ Guide to Software, 4e


How an os uses system bios to manage devices

How an OS Uses System BIOS to Manage Devices

  • System BIOS contains device information

    • Instructions enable CPU to communicate with device

    • Example: keyboard activated at startup using BIOS

  • Configure BIOS device interaction in CMOS setup

  • The OS may use system BIOS to access devices

  • Disadvantage of using BIOS device management

    • BIOS does not operate as fast as device drivers

A+ Guide to Software, 4e


How an os manages memory

How an OS Manages Memory

  • Memory functions performed by OS at startup

    • Launches utilities to manage memory

    • Assigns addresses to each location of memory

  • Drivers, OS, and application use memory addresses

    • Enables three software layers to refer to shared data

  • 16-bit program in real mode has direct access to RAM

  • The OS controls memory access in protected mode

    • The address spaces of a program is protected

    • Virtual memory expands number of running programs

A+ Guide to Software, 4e


A guide to software 4e

Figure 1-29 Protected mode allows more than one program to run, each protected from the other by the operating system

A+ Guide to Software, 4e


Os tools to examine a system

OS Tools to Examine a System

  • A variety of tools are available:

    • The Windows Desktop

    • My Computer and Windows Explorer

    • System Properties

    • Control Panel

    • Device Manager

    • System Information

    • Windows Help and the Microsoft Web Site

A+ Guide to Software, 4e


The windows desktop

The Windows Desktop

  • Primary tool provided by the Windows shell

  • Terms associated with the desktop

    • Taskbar: displays information, offers program access

    • Service: support program running in the background

    • System tray: displays icons for running services

    • Shortcut: desktop icon pointing to a program

  • Tools used to configure the desktop

    • Display Properties Window

    • The Taskbar and System Tray

    • Shortcuts

A+ Guide to Software, 4e


A guide to software 4e

Figure 1-30 The Windows XP desktop and Start menu

A+ Guide to Software, 4e


My computer and windows explorer

My Computer and Windows Explorer

  • Used to manage files, folders, and other resources

  • Tools share similar functionality

  • Perform a wide range of tasks using shortcut menus

    • Example: create a new file

  • File and folder operations performed with Explorer

    • Creating a folder

    • Deleting a folder

    • Changing file attributes

    • Changing folder options

A+ Guide to Software, 4e


A guide to software 4e

Figure 1-43 Create a new file using Windows Explorer

A+ Guide to Software, 4e


System properties

System Properties

  • Two ways to open utility:

    • Right-click My Computer and select Properties

    • Click the System applet in the Control Panel

  • Some tasks that can be performed

    • View processor and memory information

    • Change the name of the computer on the network

    • Access Device Manager on the Hardware tab

    • Control performance on the Advanced tab

    • Switch System Restore on or off

    • Use the Automatic Update tab to control updating

A+ Guide to Software, 4e


Control panel

Control Panel

  • Contains applets used to manage the system

  • Accessing Control Panel in Windows XP

    • Click Start and the click Control Panel

  • Two views: Category View and Classic View

  • Applets can be launched via the Run dialog box

    • Example: enter Main.cpl to open Mouse Properties

A+ Guide to Software, 4e


Device manager

Device Manager

  • Primary graphical tool for solving hardware problems

  • Primary screen displays a list of devices

    • Right click Properties to view device details

  • Some tasks that can be performed

    • Enable, disable, uninstall a device

    • Update device drivers

    • Uninstall device drivers

  • Symbols are used to indicate a device status

    • Example: red X over device indicates it is disabled

A+ Guide to Software, 4e


A guide to software 4e

Figure 1-49 Windows XP Device Manager gives information about devices and allows you to uninstall a device

A+ Guide to Software, 4e


System information

System Information

  • Used to view detailed information about the system

  • Important features

    • BIOS version you are using

    • The directory where the OS is installed

    • How system resources are used

    • Information about drivers and their status

  • To open utility, enter Msinfo32.exe in Run dialog box

A+ Guide to Software, 4e


Windows help and the microsoft web site

Windows Help and the Microsoft Web Site

  • Key guide to system

  • Excellent troubleshooting resource

    • Example: analyze problem with Internet connection

  • Microsoft Web site: http://support.microsoft.com

  • Use search engine to locate alternative resources

    • Ensure that the alternative site is reputable

A+ Guide to Software, 4e


A guide to software 4e

Figure 1-53 Troubleshooter making a suggestion to resolve a problem with using the modem to connect to the Internet

A+ Guide to Software, 4e


Keystroke shortcuts in the os

Keystroke Shortcuts in the OS

  • Simplify interaction with the operating system

  • Examples

    • Function keys: F4, F5, F8

    • Text editing operations: Ctrl+C, Ctrl+V, Ctrl+x

  • Shortcut keys are critical when mouse is not working

A+ Guide to Software, 4e


Summary

Summary

  • The OS manages system resources for users and applications

  • DOS (disk operating system): early command- driven OS

  • Modern OSs: Windows 2000/XP, Linux, Mac OS X

  • Operating systems are divided into a kernel and user shell

  • Two OS running modes: real and protected

A+ Guide to Software, 4e


Summary continued

Summary (continued)

  • OS functions: providing a user interface, managing files, managing applications, and managing hardware

  • Windows desktop: primary graphical interface to OS

  • Windows Explorer: used to navigate directory and manipulate files and folders

  • Other tools: System Properties, Control Panel, Device Manager, System Information, and Windows Help

  • Keystroke shortcuts provide a way to perform tasks without a mouse

A+ Guide to Software, 4e


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