Macedonianism. The opponents of the Holy Spirit's divinity were called "pneumatomachians" (that means, opponents of the Spirit), or "Macedonians" (from the name of their leader, Macedonius). Macedoniansim denied the full personality and divinity of the Holy Spirit.
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The opponents of the Holy Spirit's divinity were called "pneumatomachians" (that means, opponents of the Spirit), or "Macedonians" (from the name of their leader, Macedonius).
Thus they denied the consubstantiality of the Holy Spirit with the Father in the divine Trinity.
"Whether or not the Macedonians explicitly denied the Divinity of the Holy Ghost is uncertain; but they viewed Him as essentially separate from, and external to, the One Indivisible Godhead.
The Nicene Creed declares that:
The great Fathers opposed these erroneous opinions with their authority
It was left to Gregory of Nyssa, Basil’s brother to champion the cause of the Holy Spirit
The Symbol of Epiphanius (374)
Epiphanius bishop of Salamis wrote a personal symbol which became the model of orthodoxy
He thus prepares in advance the doctrine of Constantinople
The Symbol of Epiphanius (374)
We believe in one God, the Father almighty, maker of heaven and earth, of all things visible and invisible.
And in one Lord Jesus Christ, the only-begotten Son of God, generated from the Father before all ages, that is, from the being (ousia) of the Father, Light from Light, true God from true God, begotten, not made, one in being (homoousios) with the Father, through whom all things were made, those in the heavens and those on earth. For us and for our salvation he came down from the heavens, and became flesh from the Holy Spirit and the Virgin Mary, and was made man. For our sake too he was crucified under Pontius Pilate, suffered and was buried. On the third day he rose again according to the Scriptures. He ascended to the heavens and is seated at the right hand of the father. He shall come again in glory to judge the living and the dead; to his Kingdom there will be no end.
And in the Holy Spirit, the Lord (to Kurion) andGiver of life, who proceeds (ekporeuomenon) from the Father, who together with the Father and the Son is worshipped and glorified, who has spoken through the prophets.
And in one Holy Catholic and apostolic Church. We acknowledgev one baptism for the forgiveness of sins. We expect the resurrection of the dead and the life of the world to come. Amen
Born at Besanduk, near Eleutheropolis, in Judea, after 310; died in 403.
In 367 his reputation for asceticism and learning brought about his nomination as Bishop of Constantia (Salamis) the metropolis of the Island of Cyprus.
His zeal for the monastic life, ecclesiastical learning, and orthodoxy gave him extraordinary authority; hence the numerous occasions on which his advice was sought, and his intervention in important ecclesiastical affairs.
He went to Antioch, probably in 376, to investigate Apollinarianism and to intervene in the schism that divided that church.
In 382 he assisted at the Council of Rome to uphold the cause of Paulinus of Antioch.
His earliest work (374) is the "Ancoratus", or "The Well-Anchored", i.e. the Christian firmly fixed against the agitations of error.
There are two symbols at the end of the work:
In the "Ancoratus" Epiphanius confines himself to a list of heresies.
In the editions of the "Panarion" each heresy is numbered in order; hence it is customary to quote the "Panarion" as follows: Epiphanius, Haer. N (the number of the heresy).
Much of the information in this great compilation varies in value.
The "Panarion" furnishes very valuable information concerning the religious history of the fourth century, either because the author confines himself to transcribing documents preserved by him alone or because he writes down his personal observations.
His character is most clearly shown by the Origenist controversies, which demonstrated his disinterested zeal but also his quickness to suspect heresy
He saw in Origen the chief cause of the heresies of his time, and especially of Arianism.
He did not confine himself to this condemnation of Origen. He reproached the monks and bishops of his time with accepting the Origenist errors.