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Imperialism or… The Beginning of Us Ruling the World. Manifest Destiny!. XXXXXX. Performance Indicators • Describe the causes of and major events associated with the United States becoming an imperial power in the late 19th century

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The Beginning of Us Ruling the World

Manifest Destiny!



Performance Indicators

• Describe the causes of and major events associated

with the United States becoming an imperial power in the

late 19th century

• Analyze the scope and evolution of various United

States foreign policies in the early part of the 20th

century (Compare Roosevelt’s Big Stick Diplomacy,

William Taft’s Dollar Diplomacy, and Woodrow Wilson’s

Moral Diplomacy)



Major Understandings

There were a variety of both domestic and foreign

reasons why the US in the late 19th century sought to

become an imperial power

As a result, the US acquired overseas territories such

as the Philippines, Guam, Puerto Puerto Rico and oversight

of Cuba as a result of the Spanish American War; and

annexed the Hawaiian Islands.

The US’s new role in the world was interpreted differently

by Presidents Theodore Roosevelt, William Taft and

Woodrow Wilson: Roosevelt’s was much more aggressive

(Big Stick), Taft’s relied on the US’s economic power

(Dollar Diplomacy) and Wilson tried to repair the negative

image abroad with “Moral Diplomacy” Each had its successes

and limitations.



Essential Questions

Why and how did the US become an imperial power

in the late 19th Century?

How did this new status influence the foreign

policies of Presidents Roosevelt, Taft and Wilson?




Imperialism, Spanish-American War, Treaty

of Paris, Annexation of Hawaii, Big Stick,

Dollar Diplomacy, Moral Diplomacy, Panama Canal,

Open Door, Boxer Rebellion,




Explain why and how the US became an

imperialist power in the late 19th Century

Discuss the differences between the foreign

policies of Presidents Roosevelt, Taft, and




What is Imperialism?

Stronger nations attempt to create empires by

dominating weaker nations - economically,

politically, culturally or militarily.


The White Man’s Burden

Rudyard Kipling wrote a poem about how

Whites were responsible to give the “savages’

The benefit of their knowledge and culture

“Take up the white man’s burden

Send forth the best ye breed”

“Your new-caught sullen peoples,

Half devil and half child.”


“The English race was destined to dominate the globe

in the institutions, traditions, language and blood of the

world’s people”

John Fiske, historian and popular lecturer

“The Anglo-Saxon was designed to be his brother’s


Josiah Strong, Congregationalist Minister



1904 World’s Fair • Saint Louis Exposition

Shipped in “natives” from many countries around the

world and set up “villages” so the white folks could

view them and observe their customs

Planted the idea that

whites were better and

more advanced than

other races and cultures


Plan to Expand

U.S. became too successful - producing

too much, needed more places to sell

Wanted to sell U.S. products to other countries

and carry democratic values and Christianity to

others around the world.

Great Britain, France and Russia were already

taking over countries all over the world for the

same reasons.


1867 - we annexed Midway Islands

1875 - signed deal with Hawaii - they could sell

the U.S. sugar with no tax, as long as they didn’t

sell any land to other countries

American businessman provided financial services

to Costa Rica and got use of land there. Exported

50 million bunches of bananas back to U.S.

dominated governments of Costa Rica, Guatemala

and Honduras; known as Banana Republics


By 1900, the U.S. had the most powerful

Navy in the world, so they could back up

their dominance with power.

Was Imperialism a new form of Manifest Destiny?

Others believed in Social Darwinism - we were

a superior people, survival of the fittest, baby!


Spanish American War

Cuba was under Spain’s control. Cubans rebelled,

Over 200,000 Cubans were killed.

President McKinley moved U.S. battleship Maine

into Havana Harbor to protect American citizens

and property. Ship was blown up, killed 250

sailors. Most likely an accident, but many blamed


Spain also controlled the Philippines. We declared

war against Spain.


Yellow Journalism

William Randolph Hearst, a wealthy

Newspaper owner, wrote sensational

stories so more people would buy

his paper.

He printed many stories about Spain’s bad

treatment of the Cubans, and blamed the

Spanish for the explosion of the Maine.

He convinced many Americans it was right to go

to war and put a lot of pressure on the president!

“You furnish the pictures and I\'ll furnish the war!”


Hearst was trying to compete with Pulitzer’s paper,

The World, to see who could sell the most newspapers.

They came up with a lot of sensational headlines that

weren’t always true to try to get people to buy their


Joe Pulitzer


Pulitzer’s newspaper dug up a lot of corruption among

politicians--at one point Teddy Roosevelt and JP Morgan

indicted Pulitzer for libel for writing about a $40 million

deal they made with Panama for the Panama Canal.

Pulitzer also helped raise money to make the base in New

York Harbor so the Statue of Liberty (a gift from France)

could be put on it


We were never sure why the Maine blew up

• Attacked by the Spanish?

• Hit a mine in Havana Harbor?

• The two tons of explosives on the ship were ignited by

a coal explosion on the ship?

But the Yellow Journalism back in the U.S. always

pinned the “attack” on the Spanish


Teddy Roosevelt (who later became President) led his

Cavalry (the Rough Riders) up San Juan Hill in Cuba

as part of the attack. Several of the units were

Black Cavalry units that really made the attack


Battle Cry “Remember the Maine!”

2,500 Americans died in the short war, mostly from

food poisoning, yellow fever, malaria, and poor medical



Spoils of War

We signed Treaty of Paris in 1898 with Spain.

Since we won, we got the Philippines, Guam,

and Puerto Rico.

Many Americans argued that people in these

countries deserved liberty and not to be

dominated by the U.S.


The Philippines had been dominated by Spain, when the

U.S. took over the Filipinos thought they would be free.

But the U.S. took over the Philippines.


At first the Filipinos flew their flag proudly to show their

independence. In July, 1898, when the U.S. troops landed:

“I knew the moment of truth was near. The Americanos

had come wither to free us or to enslave us. I was ready

to greet them with an embrace or a bullet.”

Philippine rebels fought against the U.S. for years and

gained their independence in 1946. The U.S. had killed over

200,000 Filipinos.


Senator Hoar says Imperialism sucks (1905)

“You chose war instead of peace. You talked of the wealth

of the Phillipine Islands and about our advantage in trade.

What have we accomplished? You have wasted 600 million

dollars and sacrificed thousands of American lives. You

have slain uncounted thousands of Filipinos. You have

succeeded in converting a people into sullen and

irreconcilable enemies, possessed of a hatred which many

decades cannot eradicate.”


Senator Hoar also said:

“We crushed the Philippines, deprived them of their

independence and established an American power against

their will. No man, I think, will seriously question that that

action was contrary to the Declaration of Independence.”


Why did McKinley decide to take the Philippines?

“We could not give them back to Spain, that would be

cowardly and dishonorable. We could not let France or

Germany take them over. We could not let them govern

themselves, they were unfit for self government. We had

to take them all and to educate them, and uplift and civilize

and Christianize them and do the best we could by them.

Did we need their consent o perform a great act of

humanity? It is just to use every legitimate means for

the enlargement of American trade.”



• U.S. installed a military government in Cuba

• Tried to get Cubans to write their own

Constitution, but wanted U.S. to have two

Naval bases there and not let Cuba ally itself

with another country.

• Eventually the Cubans totally split from the

U.S. and became a communist country under

their leader Fidel Castro.


That’s why we still have Guantanamo Bay military base in

Cuba--leftover from the Spanish American War.

Today Guantanamo Bay is our prison for suspected

terrorists, although

Obama says he’ll close

it. Will we

give that land back

to Cuba?



Fidel Castro


Che Guevara

Fidel’s Little

Friend, helped

Fidel overthrow

the Cuban gov.

put in by the



Annexation of Hawaii

• Hawaii was important geographically to U.S.

• Hawaii leased Pearl Harbor to the U.S.

• Hawaiian-born planters forced King Kalakaua

to hand over control of the government

• President McKinley said it was Manifest

Destiny that the U.S. take over

• If the U.S. didn’t take control of Hawaii

would the Russians, British or French?


Hawaiians signed a petition

asking the U.S. to not take

them over


Queen Liliuokalani

Was imprisoned

in Iolani Palace for

a year when the


happened in 1893


Panama Canal

• Needed a shorter route between Atlantic and Pacific

• Panama belonged to Columbia

• U.S. didn’t want to pay the price

• Encouraged Panama to revolt against Columbia, gave U.S. naval support offshore.

• Panama wins their independence

• U.S. bought strip of land from Panama for $10 million


Was the U.S. a Big Bully?

• Many criticized President Roosevelt for

interfering in another country’s business.

• Left a long heritage of ill will among Latin

Americans toward the U.S. - they were

becoming haters!

• After Teddy Roosevelt died, Congress voted

in 1921 to pay Columbia $25 million for the

Panama Canal


Open Door Policy

We realized China was important--they had a lot

of customers for our businesses. Other countries

were also interested in China - Russia, Germany,

Britain and France also wanted some control or

influence over China

U.S. started to promote the Open Door Policy to

those other countries, so they all could have access



Boxer Rebellion

Chinese resented other countries trying to dominate them.

The Righteous and Harmonious Fists, or Boxers, started a rebellion in 1900. 300 foreigners and Christian Chinese people were killed. European powers eventually defeated the Boxers

The U.S. stood strong that China should not be

overtaken by any other country. X


Teddy Roosevelt’s Big Stick Policy

“Speak softly and carry a big stick; you will go far”

He said the U.S. only wanted to see neighbor

countries stable, orderly and prosperous. If they

did harmful things or if their government

fell apart, the U.S. would exercise “an

international police power”

We were keeping our neighborhood safe!





President Taft’s Dollar Diplomacy

• He was Roosevelt’s Secretary of War

• He believed in “substituting dollars for bullets”

or investing American dollars in weaker

countries rather than overtaking them

• So U.S. would loan other countries money, then

expect some control over that country

• Dollar diplomacy was not that successful, many

countries resented U.S. influence


Woodrow Wilson’s Moral Diplomacy

Would seek trading partners around the world

while avoiding getting politically involved. Wanted

people to start liking the U.S. again.

He hoped that the world could “be made safe

for every peace-loving nation which, like our

own, wishes to live its own life, determine

its own institutions, be assured of justice and

fair dealing by other peoples of the world as

against force and selfish aggression.”





Anti Imperialists argue

• Imperialism goes against ”Liberty for All”

• We should work on our own problems in US

• Imperialism seemed racist - we’re better

• Cost the U.S. too much money


Pro Imperialists argue

• Offered new frontiers for us to conquer

• Helped us grow stronger financially, could

sell our products to more countries

• It’s important to have stable countries

around us

Imperialism arguments still continue today