The development of political parties and the corn laws
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The development of political parties and The Corn Laws. Where are we now ?. Terminology. Terminology. Lesson Objectives. To understand what the Corn Laws were To become familiar with some economic terms To learn about the impact of the Corn Laws on the Conservative Party

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The development of political parties and The Corn Laws

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The development of political parties and the corn laws

The development of political parties and The Corn Laws


Where are we now

Where are we now ?


Terminology

Terminology


Terminology1

Terminology


Lesson objectives

Lesson Objectives

  • To understand what the Corn Laws were

  • To become familiar with some economic terms

  • To learn about the impact of the Corn Laws on the Conservative Party

    http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=blnyiG46ug0&feature=related


The corn laws

The Corn Laws

Using the booklet answer the following questions:

  • What were the Corn Laws?

  • Why were they introduced?

  • Who benefitted from the Corn Laws and why?

  • Who suffered because of the Corn Laws and why?

  • What was the Conservative dilemma?

  • How did the working and middle classes view the Corn Laws?


The corn laws1

The Corn Laws

Using the booklet answer the following questions:

  • What were the Corn Laws?

    • Protectionist economic policies which placed a limit on how low the price of grain could fall. It was like a tariff on corn.

  • Why were they introduced?

    • Napoleonic wars – meant no imports, goods protected from competition, farming became lucrative and British corn was sold with a great profit.

    • At the end of the war Britain was faced with the prospect of being flooded with cheap grain.

    • 1815 – Corn Laws introduced – no foreign corn in Britain until domestic corn returned to 80 shillings per quarter – this guaranteed profits for landowners

  • Who benefitted from the Corn Laws and why?

    • Aristocracy and other large landowners

    • Seen as important source of revenue

  • Who suffered because of the Corn Laws and why?

    • The Urban working class had to spend the bulk of their income on corn just to survive.

    • Manufacturers suffered because people had no money left over to spend and they had to lay off workers.

    • Workers then had problems finding employment

  • What was the Conservative dilemma?

    • Corn laws were an obstacle to free trade which would lead to economic growth and prosperity

    • However they were strongly supported by the landed interest

  • How did the working and middle classes view the Corn Laws?

    • Corn Laws represented the political strength of landed elite which continued to dominate Parliament despite industrialisation.


  • What were the corn laws

    Corn laws were protectionist economic policies which placed a limit on how low the price of grain (corn) could fall.

    This meant that grain producers would not suffer economic hardship or bankruptcy in times of depression and lowered grain prices.

    It was like having a tariff on corn

    What were the Corn laws?


    Why were they introduced

    Why were they introduced?

    • During the Napoleonic Wars, the British blockaded the European continent, hoping to isolate the Napoleonic Empire and bring economic hardship to the French. One result of this blockade was that goods within the British Isles were protected against competition from outside sources. There were no French imports. Farming became extremely lucrative, and farming land was traded at very profitable rates. British corn was grown and sold at home with great profit.


    Why were they introduced1

    Why were they introduced?

    • At the end of the wars Britain was faced with the prospect of being flooded with cheap corn. This would affect the revenue of landowners.

    • So, in 1815 the Corn Law was introduced. This law stated that no foreign corn would be allowed into Britain until domestic corn reached a price of 80 shillings per quarter; this guaranteed profits for landowners. Later on, a sliding scale was introduced which allowed import duty on foreign corn to rise or fall according to the price of British Corn. (For example: corn at 85s duty at 5s; corn at 90s, duty at 3s


    Who benefited

    The beneficiaries of the Corn Laws were the aristocracy and other large landowners who owned the majority of profitable farmland. Landowners had a vested interest in seeing the Corn Laws remain in force. And since the right to vote was not universal, but rather depended on land ownership, voting Members of Parliament had no interest in repealing the Corn Law. They saw it as an important source of revenue. They were not in favour of Free Trade.

    This is how the laws came to be called ‘class legislation’ Laws passed by a government to favour a specific class ie. Aristocratic land owners.

    Who benefited?


    Who suffered

    The artificially high corn prices encouraged by the Corn Laws meant that the urban working class had to spend the bulk of their income on corn just to survive. Since they had no income left over for other purchases, they could not afford manufactured goods. So manufacturers suffered, and had to lay off workers. They were under pressure to pay higher wages.

    These workers had difficulty finding employment, so the economic spiral worsened for everyone involved.

    Who Suffered?


    The political dimension

    The political dimension

    • For Conservatives, who believed in free trade, the Corn Laws presented a dilemma.

    • On the one hand they were an obstacle to the freeing of trade restrictions which would lead to greater economic growth and prosperity.

    • On the other hand, they were strongly supported by the landed interest which made up the great bulk of Tory support.

    • Peel had used his budget to introduce Income Tax (direct taxation), so he could cut duties on imported goods (indirect taxation)


    The radical response

    It was not just the working class that condemned the introduction of the Corn Laws by Liverpool’s government in 1815

    For Radical elements within the middle class, this legislation represented the most obvious example of the political strength of the landed elite which, despite industrialisation and the growth of commercial wealth, continued to dominate parliament.

    The Radical response


    The development of political parties and the corn laws

    Peel

    • Peel had said he wanted to make Britain “a cheap country to live in” and his ability to cut his deficit and have a surplus by 1844 was testament to his financial ability. He knew that public revenue (fiscal) would come from those who could afford to buy certain goods, but he often had to convince his party members, especially those MP`s who held no office (backbenchers).


    Homework terminology

    Homework: Terminology


    Homework peel and the corn laws

    Homework: Peel and the Corn Laws

    • Peel saw the repeal of the Corn Laws as a logical next step and he introduced a Bill to get rid of them in 1845.

    • So what factors led him to do this ?

    • Read pages 148-149 and identify these 5 factors; rank order them and decide which one you think is the most important.

    • Use pages 149-150 to find out :-

      1. Why Peel was forced to resign

      2. What role Disraeli played in his downfall

      3. Why the repeal of the Corn Laws split the Conservative Party.


    The development of political parties and the corn laws

    • The Carebears – Jacob Arkell, Sophie, Daniel, Millie

    • The Smurfs – Thomas, Bethany, Jas, Warren

    • The Rugrats – Jacob Atwell, Catherine, Elizabeth

    • The Moomins – Matthew, Shirley, Katie, Charlotte

    • The Flintstones – Fabian, Kieran, Hannah, Rosie


    How did the repeal of the corn laws affect the conservatives and the liberals

    How did the repeal of the Corn Laws affect the Conservatives and the Liberals?

    • To reflect on the aftermath of the Corn Laws – in understanding the effect on the Conservative Party and the problems the new Liberal Party faced

    • To start to learn about 2 politicians – their ideas and influences


    Robert peel

    Robert Peel


    Robert peel1

    Robert Peel


    Feedback homework peel and the corn laws

    FEEDBACK Homework: Peel and the Corn Laws

    Read pages 148-149 and identify these 5 factors; rank order them and decide which one you think is the most important.

    • Peels gradual conversion (Irish Famine, need to promote manufacturing prosperity)

    • Irish Famine

    • Success of budgetary and tariff reforms (their successes convinced Peel that further reform would stimulate industry)

    • An opportunity to restore confidence in the political system

    • the appeal of the Anti-Corn Law League

      Use pages 149-150 to find out :-

    • Why Peel was forced to resign?

      Peel had been elected in 1841 on a commitment to retain the Corn Laws. Repeal would not only be a breach of aristocratic confidence but also a rejection of the electorates wishes. Not surprisingly a majority of the cabinet opposed Peels policy and he had no alternative but to resign dec 1845.

      2. What role Disraeli played in his downfall?

      Put forward a protectionist case which claimed Peel had betrayed confidence of his

      party and exaggerated the famine. Made personal attacks on Peel.

      3. Why did the repeal of the Corn Laws split the Conservative Party?

      2/3 of his own Party voted against him, he relied on Whig votes, Peelite faction of

      Conservatives.


    The development of political parties and the corn laws

    How did the repeal of the Corn Laws affect the Conservatives and the Liberals?

    Work in pairs to prepare to argue that the Repeal of the Corn Laws was a disaster for the Conservative Party.

    Now prepare to argue that the repeal was a bonus for the new Liberal Party

    • How could you argue that the Liberal Party was also facing problems?


    The development of political parties and the corn laws

    How did the repeal of the Corn Laws affect the Conservatives and the Liberals?

    • Argue that the Repeal of the Corn Laws was a disaster for the Conservative Party.

    • Caused a split between ‘Ultra-Tories’ and Peelites

    • Problems with leadership as Peel accused of treachery and Bentinck lacked ability, Disraeli didn’t have support or party (Jewish and ostentatious style), Lord Derby lack of plan.

    • Altered Parliamentary balance and threw Party Politics into disarray

    • Unable to hold a government – statistics 1857 – 140 Anti-Conservative majority, minority gov. but never lasted long.

    • Forced back to traditional strongholds e.g. countryside, lacked the capitals support.

    • Didn’t appeal to middle classes

    • 1841 – 74 Conservatives did not win a single general election.


    The development of political parties and the corn laws

    How did the repeal of the Corn Laws affect the Conservatives and the Liberals?

    • Argue that the repeal was a bonus for the new Liberal Party

    • Whigs, Radicals, Irish and Peelites came together to form new Liberal Party

    • 1841 – 74 Conservatives did not win a single general election.

    • There were some broad areas of agreement such as free trade and support of Liberal and Nationalist governments in Europe

    • Strength of local gov increasing (rank and file)

    • Strength of Non-Conformist organisations

    • Willis’ room meeting 1859 – stability and foundations of Liberal Party

    • Gave Liberals office BUT also started their growth as an identifiable and understood group

    • Encouraged men of ability, experience and talent into Liberal rank e.g. Gladstone

    • Middle-class background and wanted a more active role for government


    The development of political parties and the corn laws

    How did the repeal of the Corn Laws affect the Conservatives and the Liberals?

    • Argue that the Liberal Party was also facing problems

    • 1850s still led t0 instability of governments

    • Tensions between leaders – Whig (Conservative) and Radicals clashed, Gladstone (Peel), Palmerston (Whig) commit to alliance (Liberal)

    • Peelites failed to fully commit to alliance

    • Governments continued to collapse after failures of crucial votes in Parliament – looseness of part discipline showed

    • Splits between ‘Old’ and ‘New’ Nation and MPs and Rank and File

    • Potential for a split similar to that suffered by Conservatives

    • Potential splits in ideology, attitude and policy


    The effect on political parties

    The effect on Political Parties

    Homework

    • Use Section 6, from page 231, to complete this task.

    • Explain why the Conservatives were unable to win elections after 1846. Aim to give 3 well explained reasons.


    Get into groups 3 or 4

    Get into groups 3 or 4

    • Must be a mix of boys and girls

    • Choose your group carefully – who is good at researching? Feeding back? Organising?

    • Get out your homework which was the double bubble on Gladstone and Disraeli and the multi-flow map on Repeal of the Corn Laws


    Review

    Review

    Effect

    Causes

    • Use the Flow Map to identify the causes and effects of the repeal of the Corn Laws.

    Main Event

    Repeal of Corn Laws


    How did the liberal party develop after 1846

    How did the Liberal Party develop after 1846?


    The development of political parties and the corn laws

    Largest group aristocratic

    • Reform to conserve (slowly)

    • Defended national interests in foreign policy

    • Favourable to religious toleration

    • Between radicals – Palmerston did not want more Parliamentary Reform

    • Reform

    • Free trade

    • Support for Liberal/nationalist movements in Europe

    • Favoured a more active role for government in politics

    • No coherent philosophy

    • Supported measures of Russell 1846 - 52

    • Policy

    • Thought Whigs were inferior administrators

    • Disagreed with foreign policy

    • Free Trade

    Gladstone

    Aberdeen

    No effective leader

    Sir James Graham

    • Sympathetic to Chartism

    • Concerned with Factory Reform or religious disabilities

    • Wanted more democracy

    Big influence in Liberal Party

    • Criticised Palmerston and Russell over government

    • Opposed aristocratic government

    • Free trade


    The development of political parties and the corn laws

    Assessment: Explain the growth of political parties 1832 – 1846.


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