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Chapter 4 Workbook Questions Review. Collins Standard 3:1. How did Uncle Tom’s Cabin influence people in the North?. Uncle Tom’s Cabin was a work of fiction that became extremely popular, especially among women.

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How did uncle tom s cabin influence people in the north
How did Uncle Tom’s Cabin influence people in the North?

  • Uncle Tom’s Cabin was a work of fiction that became extremely popular, especially among women.

  • It described the cruelty of slavery and convinced many people to support the abolitionist movement.


What political parties came together to form the republican party
What political parties came together to form the Republican Party?

  • Some of the Northern Democrats

  • The Whigs

  • The Free Soilers

  • What was their platform?

  • The platform of this party was to stop the spread of slavery.


What was the political party of the south
What was the political party of the South? Party?

  • The political party of the South was the Democrat Party.

  • Until the 1950’s, this will be the party of farmers

  • they have the same agenda that Democratic Republicans from the era of Thomas Jefferson – small government, states’ rights, farmers are the backbone of the nation, strict interpretation of the Constitution


What did the south fear about lincoln
What did the South fear about Lincoln? Party?

  • The South feared that Lincoln would try to end slavery

  • How did SC and 11 other southern states react to Lincoln’s election?

  • They seceded from the Union


What happened at fort sumter
What happened at Fort Sumter? Party?

  • Big Idea: First shots of the Civil War fired here

  • What led to shots being fired at Fort Sumter?

  • It was a federal fort in Charleston harbor

  • Running low on supplies

  • When federal ship tried to resupply, Confederates fired on fort, forced federals to surrender


Review of steps leading to war
Review of steps leading to War Party?

  • High tariffs and Nullification Crisis

  • Compromise of 1850 – Fugitive Slave Law

  • Kansas Nebraska Act

  • Dred Scott Decision

  • Growing abolitionist leanings

  • Lincoln running for President


Advantages of north v south
Advantages of North v. South Party?

  • North

  • More railroad lines

  • More factories

  • Experienced government

  • More people for more troops

  • South

  • Better military commanders

  • Motivation – protecting land and homes

  • Defensive war – didn’t have to win, just don’t lose – war of attrition – wear downt the enemy


Manassas bull run
Manassas/Bull Run Party?

  • Confederates won, had better commanders


Second manassas bull run
Second Manassas/Bull Run Party?

  • Confederates won…..

  • This led to General Lee’s overconfidence and his decision to invade the North - Gettysburg


Antietam
Antietam Party?

  • Single bloodiest day of battle in the Civil War

  • Because the Confederates left the field, it is considered a Union victory

  • BUT….Union General did not pursue Lee’s troops after the battle and lost a critical advantage


Chancellorsville
Chancellorsville Party?

  • Confederate Victory

  • Confederates won because the North had poor leadership

  • It was late in the afternoon and the Northern troops were setting up camp

  • Lee divided his forces and attacked


Vicksburg
Vicksburg Party?

  • Located along the Mississippi – used to guard the Mississippi River by the Confederates

  • Union won the battle after several weeks of bombarding the city and starving out the people of the city

  • Union victory – captured partial control of the Mississippi River and essentially “cut the Confederacy in two…”


Sherman s march total war
Sherman’s March – Total War Party?

  • Sherman gave the order to burn everything in his path

  • Burn cities, homes, and crops

  • Wage war on the civilian population – something not done before

  • Burned Atlanta and then marched towards the sea destroying many cities along the way, including Columbia, SC


Why total war
Why Total War? Party?

  • Grant and Sherman felt that this would make the South surrender quicker


Importance of naval battles
Importance of Naval Battles? Party?

  • First war where we see “Iron Clad” ships at war


Why keep maryland from joining confederacy
Why keep Maryland from joining Confederacy? Party?

  • If Maryland had been allowed to join the Confederacy, the Capital of the Union would have been surrounded by Confederate states

  • Lincoln decided to put Maryland under martial or military law and occupation


Lincoln suspended habeas corpus
Lincoln suspended Habeas Corpus Party?

  • Jailed Maryland leaders who sympathized with the Confederate cause…

  • Legal? Probably not, but it set a precedent for future Presidents to suspend Civil Rights during war time

  • Again, Why did Lincoln do this?

  • To keep Maryland from joining the Confederacy


Border states
Border States Party?

  • Kentucky

  • Missouri

  • Maryland

  • Delaware

  • West Virginia – a state that became a state during this war


Why southern sympathizers in border states
Why southern sympathizers in border states? Party?

  • Many people in these states either grew cotton

  • Many people in these states were slave owners


Why was the draft controversial in the north
Why was the draft controversial in the North? Party?

  • Men with money could pay $300.00 to the government to get out of the draft

  • Many immigrants and poor people who could not afford to pay their way out had to serve – this caused bad feelings

  • There were riots in NYC because of this


Copperheads
Copperheads? Party?

  • Union Democrats who criticized Lincoln and created a fear among poor Northerners that freed slaves would come to the North and take factory jobs


What did lincoln hope to achieve with e p
What did Lincoln hope to achieve with E.P? Party?

  • He hoped to strip the South of its slave labor, labor which was providing for the South’s supplies by keeping the cotton trade going

  • Slaves kept plantations running while owners were away at war

  • Slave grown cotton was traded for war supplies with Europe


Significance of 54 th mass
Significance of 54 Party?th Mass?

  • First all black regiment – attacked Fort Wagner in SC and while many died, they fought bravely and sacrificed themselves for the Union cause


Grant s goal
Grant’s goal? Party?

  • To wage total war and bring war to a quick end


Why did lee surrender when he did
Why did Lee surrender when he did? Party?

  • He wanted to spare his mean from more death and harm….


Map Party?




What did the government attempt to do during this era
What did the government attempt to do during this era? as

  • Rebuild the South

  • Punish the South for the war


How did lincoln feel about the south after the war
How did Lincoln feel about the south after the war? as

  • Lincoln’s goals never really changed, he wanted the Union back together

  • He did not want the South to suffer – the suffering during the war had been bad enough


What happened to lincoln
What happened to Lincoln? as

  • Lincoln was assassinated shortly after Lee surrendered at Appomattox Courthouse


President after lincoln
President after Lincoln? as

  • Andrew Johnson


Johnson s feelings towards the south
Johnson’s feelings towards the South? as

  • He was sympathetic towards the South because he was a Southerner


What was his plan called
What was his plan called? as

  • Presidential Reconstruction


How did radical republicans in congress view johnson s plan
How did Radical Republicans in Congress view Johnson’s plan?

  • They felt that Johnson’s plan was too lenient or easy on the South


What kind of reconstruction did the radical republicans want
What kind of Reconstruction did the radical Republicans want?

  • They wanted to see the south punished

  • They wanted Republican governments in each state – fair elections were to be held, giving rights to newly freed African Americans

  • Past Confederates could not vote or hold office

  • Each state was to write a new Constitution


Why did radical republicans want a harsher plan
Why did Radical Republicans want a harsher plan? want?

  • They wanted to punish the South for the war

  • They were outraged that these ex-Confederates could walk back into Congress after the war and hold office as if nothing had happened – Radicals wanted to see these men suffer


Outline the 13 th 14 th and 15 th amendments
Outline the 13 want?th, 14th, and 15th Amendments

  • 13th – abolished slavery

  • 14th – gave citizenship to African Americans

  • 15th – gave African American men suffrage

  • The way we can remember this for the EOC is:

  • Free, citizen, vote – you can’t be a citizen if you aren’t free, you can not vote if you aren’t a citizen – so – free, citizen, vote


Why did congress vote to impeach president johnson
Why did Congress vote to impeach President Johnson? want?

  • They did not like his Reconstruction plan – they felt that it was too lenient/easy on the South

  • They used a technicality to impeach him – he misused the Tenure of Office Act

  • He was impeached, but he was not removed from office



What activity did many freedmen turn to in order to make a living
What activity did many “freedmen” turn to in order to make a living?

  • Many of them turned to sharecropping


What was bad about this system
What was bad about this system? make a living?

  • This system tied poor people to the land, they often became trapped in a cycle of debt

  • They were using the landowners land to grow cotton, they had to give a portion of their profits to the landowners

  • Landowners provided land, and sometimes tools, but the sharecropper often had to buy other supplies on credit.

  • If sharecroppers could not pay the bill at the end of the season, they would have to work the next farm season to pay the debt.


What was tenant farming
What was tenant farming? make a living?

  • Tenant farmers rented the land from the landowners so they were less at the mercy of crooked landowners.


Purpose of freedman s bureau
Purpose of Freedman’s Bureau make a living?

  • It provided clothing, medical care, meals and education for newly freed persons


Greatest success of f bureau
Greatest Success of F. Bureau? make a living?

  • Public Education/Public schools


Purpose of churches for african americans during this period
Purpose of churches for African Americans during this period?

  • Centers for Social and political life

  • Encouraged African Americans to become more politically active


African american participation on politics after the war
African American participation on politics after the war? period?

  • Some served in state government offices and state legislatures

  • Some served in Congress representing their states


Conflicts within the african american communities
Conflicts within the African American communities? period?

  • “Elite” African Americans – many of whom had been free before the war, did not want to see land taken from landowners

  • Elite felt they were superior to poor, uneducated African Americans

  • Freed people resented seeing Northern African Americans holding public offices and being elected to office in southern states


What were black codes
What were black codes? period?

  • Southern states passed these to restrict the rights of newly freed blacks AFTER the war but BEFORE strict Reconstruction was imposed on the south by the federal government/Radical Republicans


Some whites respond
Some whites respond… period?

  • With violence – groups such as Ku Klux Klan to intimidate blacks who tried to participate in government, vote, and be free

  • They also intimidated white Republicans and carpetbaggers


Carpetbaggers and scalawags
Carpetbaggers and Scalawags period?

  • Carpetbaggers – northerners who came to the South to profit from the South's misery

  • Many ran for state offices, bought up lands, resources, etc.

  • Scalawags – Southerners who cooperated with northern Reconstruction Republicans


Ten or so years between end of war and 1876
Ten or so years between end of war and 1876? period?

  • Military occupation of south – five military districts to stop violence against Republicans and African Americans


After those ten years
After those ten years? period?

  • North grew tired of hearing about the South – wanted Reconstruction to end

  • Many northerners felt like they could not “REFORM” the south

  • Violence continued even after occupation


Compromise of 1877
Compromise of 1877: period?

  • Democrats in SC agreed to let Republican candidate Hayes become President IF

  • 1. Military would be removed from South

  • 2. Democratic candidates could hold office – Wade Hampton III became Governor of SC


After reconstruction
After Reconstruction… period?

  • Much of the South returned to their old ways of doing things….farming – using sharecropping labor

  • South was poor for a very long time after the war and Reconstruction – it will not emerge from economic depression until WWII


After reconstruction1
After Reconstruction…. period?

  • Many southern states passed Jim Crow Laws

  • Segregation - African Americans had to use separate facilities

  • Poll taxes, literacy tests and grandfather clauses were used to keep African Americans from voting

  • Intimidation of African Americans returned


Segregation
Segregation? period?

  • Established by the Supreme Court Case – Plessy vs. Ferguson

  • In the South – southern states had de jure segregation – laws on the books – Jim Crow laws to limit rights of African Americans

  • In the North and west – segregation was de facto – it was practiced – it wasn’t official or in the laws but many facilities did not allow African Americans to share certain facilities


W e b dubois vs b t washington
W.E.B. period?DuBois vs. B.T. Washington

  • W.E.B.D.

  • First black grad from Harvard

  • Did not believe in segregation

  • Felt African Americans should be very active politically

  • B.T.W.

  • Tuskegee Institute

  • Segregation okay – can achieve integration through education and hard work

  • Excel in teaching and white collar jobs – eventually they would be recognized


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