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Simple Sentence. PRACTICE CLASS #9 (#10) 2012-05-22/23. NO MORE. CONCORD. BUT THIS IS NOT CONCORD! THIS IS CONCORD E . UNLIKE CONCORD E , CONCORD IS A GRAMMATICAL CATEGORY. CONCORD. Concord is AGREEMENT between two sentence elements with respect to certain grammatical features.

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simple sentence

Simple Sentence

PRACTICE CLASS #9 (#10)

2012-05-22/23

slide4

BUT THIS IS NOT CONCORD!

THIS IS CONCORDE.

UNLIKE CONCORDE, CONCORD IS A GRAMMATICAL CATEGORY.

concord1
CONCORD

Concord is AGREEMENT between two sentence elements with respect to certain grammatical features.

Officially: CONCORD (sometimes termed AGREEMENT) is the relationship between TWO GRAMMATICAL UNITS such that one of them DISPLAYS A PARTICULAR FEATURE (e.g. plurality)that ACCORDS WITH A DISPLAYED (or semantically implicit) FEATURE in the other unit.

There are several types of concord.

general types of negation
GENERAL TYPES OF NEGATION
  • CLAUSE NEGATION – the whole clause is syntactically treated as negative:
    • She’s not an attractive woman in any respect(, is she?)
  • LOCAL NEGATION – one constituent (but not necessarily a clause element) is negated:
    • She’s a not unattractive woman in some ways. (NOT: in any respect)
  • PREDICATION NEGATION – very rare, applies only after certain auxiliaries (often depends on pronunciation):
    • They may not go swimming. [=They are allowed not to go swimming]

NEGATION IS REALIZED THROUGH USE OF NEGATIVE ITEMS.

negation via negative items
NEGATION via NEGATIVE ITEMS
  • The clause can be negated:
    • EITHER BY NEGATING THE VERB,
    • OR BY NEGATING OTHER SENTENCE ELEMENTS.
  • Depending on what sentence element is being negated, it is necessary to use different negative items:
    • VERB NEGATION: the negative particle NOT is always used: He does not dring. She is not a model wife.
    • NEGATION OF OTHER SENTENCE ELEMENTS can be achieved using DIFFERENTNEGATIVE ITEMS:
      • Words negative in form and meaning: no, none, never, not
      • Word negative in meaning only (not negative in form): rarely, seldom, scarcely, barely, little, few
      • VERBS, ADJECTIVE, PREPOSTIONS with IMPLIED NEGATIVE MEANING: refuse, deny, fail; reluctant, unaware; without, against; unless
negation scope of negation
NEGATION: SCOPE OF NEGATION

The POSITION OF THE NEGATIVE ITEM may drastically INFLUENCE THE MEANING OF THE WHOLE SENTENCE:

  • The SCOPE OF NEGATION is the stretch of language OVER WHICH THE NEGATIVE MEANING OPERATES AND WHERE NON-ASSERTIVE ITEMS MUST BE USED.
  • The SCOPE OF NEGATION EXTENDS FROM THE NEGATIVE ITEM TO:
    • THE END OF THE CLAUSE (NOT NECESSARILY THE END OF THE SENTENCE),
    • THE END OF THE NEGATED PHRASE (IF ONLY A SINGLE PHRASE IS NEGATED), OR
    • THE BEGINNING OF THE FINAL ADJUNCT.
  • WHY IS THIS SUCH A BIG DEAL?
scope of negation
SCOPE OF NEGATION

She definitely didn’t speak to him.

= It is definite that she didn’t speak to him.

She didn’t definitely speak to him.

= It is not definite that she spoke to him.

page 145 exercise 9 a d
PAGE 145 – exercise 9 (a-d)

THERE AREN’T ANY STUDENTS IN THE CLASSROOM YET.

I WOULDN’T LIKE TO GO ANYWHERE FAR AWAY.

WE CANNOT BE FRIENDS ANY MORE/ANY LONGER.

HE HAS NEVER/RARELY GIVEN ME ANY USEFUL ADVICE.

page 145 exercise 9 e h
PAGE 145 – exercise 9 (e-h)

YOU CAN’T PARK EITHER ON THE LEFT OF RIGHT HERE.

THE WEATHER DOESN’T SEEM ANY BETTER.

SUSAN WILL NEVER MANAGE TO DO ANYTHING USEFUL.

THERE WAS NO CHANCE ANYBODY WOULD COME.

page 145 exercise 9 i l
PAGE 145 – exercise 9 (i-l)

BILL WAS UNENTHUSIASTIC TO READ ANY OF THE BOOKS.

NO PROBLEM CAN BE SOLVED LIKE THAT.

LITTLE OF THE FOOD WAS BAD.

THEY WON’T GO SHOPPING.

page 146 exercise 10
PAGE 146 – exercise 10

I (REALLY) DON’T (REALLY) UNDERSTAND.

THAT (SIMPLY) IS (SIMPLY) NOT ACCEPTABLE.

I (DEFINITELY) DON’T (DEFINITELY) KNOW (DEFINITELY) WHAT ….

(EVEN) HE (EVEN) DOESN’T (EVEN) TRY (EVEN).

page 146 exercise 11 a d
PAGE 146 – exercise 11 (a-d)

WHAT IS HER NAME?

WHERE DOES SHE COME FROM?

DID SOMEONE CALL HER LAST NIGHT?

CAN’T YOU GIVE US ANY HELP?

page 146 exercise 11 e h
PAGE 146 – exercise 11 (e-h)

YOU’VE GOT YOUR CAMERA WITH YOU?

SHALL WE TRAVEL BY BUS OR TRAIN?

HASN’T SHE GROWN!

IS THAT A REASON FOR DESPAIR?

page 143 exercise 7 a e
PAGE 143 – exercise 7 (a-e)

O: THEME

S: AGENT

S: POSSESOR

O: THEME

S: INSTRUMENT

S: THEME

O: LOCATIVE

page 143 exercise 7 f j
PAGE 143 – exercise 7 (f-j)

Oi: THEME (or RECIPIENT?)

Od: RESULT/EFFECTED (eventive)

Co: current attribute of the object

Co: resulting attribute of the object

Cs: resulting attribute of the subject

S: INSTRUMENT

O: THEME

page 143 exercise 7 k o
PAGE 143 – exercise 7 (k-o)

Cs: current attribute of the subject

S: IDENTIFIED

S1: AGENT

Od1: THEME

Oi1: RECIPIENT

S2: RECIPIENT

Od2: THEME

A: RECIPIENT

S: THEME

Oi: THEME

Od: RESULT/EFFECTED (eventive)

O: THEME

S: AGENT

Co: current attribute of the object

page 143 exercise 7 p t
PAGE 143 – exercise 7 (p-t)

S: EXPERIENCER

O: LOCATIVE

S: AGENT

O: RESULT/EFFECTED (cognate)

S: AGENT

S: EXPERIENCER

O: INSTRUMENT

S: AGENT

O: RESULT/EFFECTED

page 143 exercise 7 u z
PAGE 143 – exercise 7 (u-z)

S: CAUSE

O: THEME

S: AGENT

O: THEME

S: AGENT

O: RESULT/EFFECTED

O: INSTRUMENT

S1: AGENT

Oi1: RECIPIENT

Od1: RESULT/EFFECTED

S2: AGENT

S: EXPERIENCER

complex sentence

COMPLEX SENTENCE

CLASS #1 – 2012-05-22

page 166 exercise 1 a c
PAGE 166 – exercise 1 (a-c)

COMPOUND SENTENCE

COMPLEX SENTENCE

SIMPLE SENTENCE

“who was buying a paper” is a postmodification of the noun “man”, so the SUBJECT is realized as a NOUN PHRASE

page 166 exercise 1 d f
PAGE 166 – exercise 1 (d-f)

COMPLEX SENTENCE

COMPLEX SENTENCE

COMPLEX SENTENCE

page 166 exercise 1 g i
PAGE 166 – exercise 1 (g-i)

COMPOUND SENTENCE

COMPLEX SENTENCE

SIMPLE SENTENCE

“when he will come” is a postmodification of the ADJ “sure”, so the sentence is simple: S (NP) V (VP) Cs (AP)

page 166 exercise 1 j l
PAGE 166 – exercise 1 (j-l)

COMPLEX SENTENCE

SIMPLE SENTENCE

“of working so hard” is a postmodification of the ADJ “tired”, so the sentence is simple: S (NP) V (VP) Cs (AP)

COMPLEX SENTENCE

page 166 exercise 1 m n
PAGE 166 – exercise 1 (m-n)

COMPLEX SENTENCE

COMPOUND SENTENCE

page 166 exercise 2 a c
PAGE 166 – exercise 2 (a-c)

OBJECT

OBJECT

(ADVERBIAL)

page 166 exercise 2 d f
PAGE 166 – exercise 2 (d-f)

DIRECT OBJECT

SUBJECT

(ADVERBIAL)

page 166 exercise 2 g i
PAGE 166 – exercise 2 (g-i)

SUBJECT

OBJECT

(ADVERBIAL)

page 166 exercise 2 j k
PAGE 166 – exercise 2 (j-k)

(ADVERBIAL)

(ADVERBIAL)

page 166 exercise 2 l o
PAGE 166 – exercise 2 (l-o)

ADVERBIAL

(ADVERBIAL)

(ADVERBIAL)

(ADVERBIAL)

l) Home is where the heart is.

m) Jill hurt her arm playing tennis.

n) The chairman of the committee turned traitor, which was unexpected.

o) To cut a long story short, they eventually broke up.

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