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Morphology: experiments. Oct 6, 2008. Typical questions asked in morphology and experiments. How are certain morphemes related? Do we store mono-morphemic words differently than poly-morphemic words? (is there a “morpheme” place in the brain)?

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Typical questions asked in morphology and experiments
Typical questions asked in morphology and experiments

  • How are certain morphemes related?

  • Do we store mono-morphemic words differently than poly-morphemic words? (is there a “morpheme” place in the brain)?

  • Are irregular morphemes stored differently than regular morphemes?

  • How do we learn morphemes in other languages (and which are the hardest and why)?


Typical questions asked in morphology and experiments1
Typical questions asked in morphology and experiments

  • How are certain morphemes related? (lexical decision tasks)

  • Do we store mono-morphemic words differently than poly-morphemic words? (is there a “morpheme” place in the brain)? (aphasia)

  • Are irregular morphemes stored differently than regular morphemes? (brain imaging)

  • How do we learn morphemes in other languages (and which are the hardest and why)? (grammaticality judgment tasks, morpheme order studies)


Lexical decision task

comma

tubes

have

acid

govern

employ

jubbing

bribe

leckom

tubes

trade

government

command

acidic

kepter

flup

employer

allowing

broth

leckom

tribe

flupper

swap

rejont

allow

brother

gave

Lexical Decision Task

http://www.essex.ac.uk/psychology/experiments/lexical.html


1 how are certain morphemes related
1. How are certain morphemes related?

How are these words related?

1-nurse/doctor, pillar/column, tree/leaf

2-leave/leaf, burn/urn/ though/through, red/bread

3-teach/taught, speak/speaker, goat/goats, ox/oxen

How are these words related?

A-serenity/serene, water/watering, proof/prove, read/reread

B-receive/deceive, transmit/remit

C-transmit/transmission, redeem/redemption, fall/fell electric/electricity, ten/tithe, brother/bretheren, child/children

D-teach/teacher, friend/friendly, walk/walked

E-go/went, good/best, am/is


Types of priming
types of priming

A-real word repetition priming (tubes)

B-non-word repetition priming (leckom)

C-semantic priming (trade/swap; sea/ocean; mouse/cheese)

D-orthographic priming (tribe/bribe, gave/have)

E-morphological priming (govern/government; sing/sang; walk/walking)

F-non-word morphological priming (flup/flupper),


Types of morphological form
types of morphological form

Transparent: govern/government

Opaque: arch/archer, court/courteous

Form: again/against, broth/brother



2 do we store mono morphemic words differently than poly morphemic words
2. Do we store mono-morphemic words differently than poly-morphemic words?

Aphasia: Local trauma to one area of the brain that affects language processing


Lobes of the brain
Lobes of the Brain

How do each one of these relate to language learning?

  • Frontal Lobe –

    • personality, planning, emotion, problem solving

    • motor cortex - movement

    • Broca’s area – speech production

  • Parietal Lobe

    • somatosensory perception integration of visual, auditory & somatospatial information

  • Temporal Lobe – hearing

    • Inferotemporal Cortex – object recognition

    • Wernicke’s area – language comprehension

  • Occipital Lobe - vision


Wernicke s aphasia
Wernicke’s aphasia

Damage to the brain in the parietal/temporal region in the left hemisphere


Karl wernicke discovered wernicke s area in 1873
Karl Wernicke discovered Wernicke’s area in 1873

  • Examiner: What kind of work have you done?

  • Patient: We, the kids, all of us, and I, we were working for a long time in the ... you know ... it's the kind of space, I mean place rear to the spedawn ...

  • Examiner: Excuse me, but I wanted to know what work you have been doing.

  • Patient: If you had said that, we had said that, poomer, near the fortunate, porpunate, tamppoo, all around the fourth of martz. Oh, I get all confused.


Broca s aphasia
Broca’s aphasia

Damage to left hemisphere, where the frontal, parietal, and temporal lobes meet


Paul broca discovered broca s area in 1861
Paul Broca discovered Broca’s area in 1861

  • "Yes ... Monday ... Dad, and Dad ... hospital, and ... Wednesday, Wednesday, nine o'clock and ... Thursday, ten o'clock ... doctors, two, two ... doctors and ... teeth, yah. And a doctor ... girl, and gums, and I."

  • "Me ... build-ing ... chairs, no, no cab-in-ets. One, saw ... then, cutting wood ... working ..."


2 do we store mono morphemic words differently than poly morphemic words1
2. Do we store mono-morphemic words differently than poly-morphemic words?


2 do we store mono morphemic words differently than poly morphemic words2
2. Do we store mono-morphemic words differently than poly-morphemic words?


3 are irregular morphemes stored differently than regular morphemes
3. Are irregular morphemes stored differently than regular morphemes?

Spatiotemporal Maps of English Verb Inflection (Dhoud et al., 2003)

Looked at what parts of the brain are activated when processing the regular and irregular past tense


3 are irregular morphemes stored differently than regular morphemes1
3. morphemes?Are irregular morphemes stored differently than regular morphemes?

  • Brighter areas indicate higher activity levels

  • During hearing words, for example, auditory cortex and Wernicke’s area are most active


Lexical decision task1
Lexical decision task morphemes?

big

tlask

jump

jumped

bread

butter

run

ran

talked

talk


4 how do we learn morphemes in 1 st and 2 nd languages which are the hardest why
4. How do we learn morphemes in 1 morphemes?st and 2nd languages (which are the hardest & why)?

Brown (1973) found a consistent order of acquisition for 14 grammatical morphemes in L1English; rates of acquisition varied:

Present progressive

In/on

Plural -s

Irregular past

Possessive ‘s

Uncontractibe copula

Articles

Regular past

Third person regular

Third person irregular/Auxilliary be


4 how do we learn morphemes in 1 st and 2 nd languages which are the hardest why1
4. How do we learn morphemes in 1 morphemes?st and 2nd languages (which are the hardest & why)?

  • Repeated with L2 learners (Dulay and Burt (1974)

Point to the mice.

Ask: “What are these?”

Ask: “What happened to the cup?”


Bilingual syntax measure
Bilingual syntax measure morphemes?

How many birds are there?

Why is the man so fat?

What is the skinny man doing?


4. How do we learn morphemes in 1st and 2nd morphemes?

languages (which are the hardest & why)?

Dulay and Burt (1974)


4 how do we learn morphemes in 1st and 2nd languages which are the hardest why
4. How do we learn morphemes in 1st and 2nd morphemes? languages (which are the hardest & why)?

Dulay and Burt (1974)


4 how do we learn morphemes in 1st and 2nd languages which are the hardest why1
4. How do we learn morphemes in 1st and 2nd morphemes? languages (which are the hardest & why)?

*Dulay and Burt (1974)

** Bailey et al. (1974)


4 how do we learn morphemes in 1st and 2nd languages which are the hardest why2
4. How do we learn morphemes in 1st and 2nd morphemes? languages (which are the hardest & why)?

This order of acquisition didn’t reflect their frequency in parents’ speech. Possible explanations?

  • Perceptual saliency

  • Syllabicity

  • Lack of exceptions


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