Anatomy of the thryroid
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Anatomy of the thryroid. Where is it?. In the neck Inferior to larynx Anterolateral structure. 4 parathyroid glands. Branches of the aorta. A orta B rachiocephalic Left C ommon carotid Left S ubclavian artery. Dual Blood Supply. Aorta  (RHS brachiocephalic Lhs direct)

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Anatomy of the thryroid

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Anatomy of the thryroid

Anatomy of the thryroid


Where is it

Where is it?

  • In the neck

  • Inferior to larynx

  • Anterolateral structure


4 parathyroid glands

4 parathyroid glands


Branches of the aorta

Branches of the aorta

  • Aorta

  • Brachiocephalic

  • Left Common carotid

  • Left Subclavian artery


Dual blood supply

Dual Blood Supply

  • Aorta

  • (RHS brachiocephalic

  • Lhs direct)

  • common carotid

  • external carotid

  • superior thyroid artery

  • (RHS brachiocephalic, LHS aorta)

  • Subclavian 

  • thyrocervical trunk 

  • inferior thyroid artery


Venous drainage

Venous drainage

  • Superior & middle thyroid drain to internal jugular (to subclavian to brachiocephalic)

  • Inferior thyroid into brachiocephalic veins


Embryology

Embryology

  • Starts life on the tongue and descends via the thyroglossal duct

Thyroglossal duct cysts

Can form anywhere along the thyroglossal duct in the midline neck.

Move on swallowing and tongue protrusion

The thyroid gland and lumps tends to move during swallowing but not always with tongue protrusion.


Histology

Histology


Anatomy of the thryroid

T4

TSH

Iodine deficiency

  • high TSH

  • low T4

+

decreased T4 secretion

Increased gland growth

Adapted from Endocrinology Physiology. SP Porterfield, Mosby


Anatomy of the thryroid

T4

TSH

Graves disease

  • Low TSH

  • high T4

-

-

+

Increased T4 secretion

TSI

thyroid stimulating immunoglobulin

Increased gland growth

Adapted from Endocrinology Physiology. SP Porterfield, Mosby


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