REVERSING ENVIRONMENTAL DEGRADATION TRENDS IN THE SOUTH CHINA SEA AND GULF OF THAILAND
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REVERSING ENVIRONMENTAL DEGRADATION TRENDS IN THE SOUTH CHINA SEA AND GULF OF THAILAND WWW.UNEPSCS.ORG. Some Good Practices in the Establishment of Refugia , Sanctuaries, and Fisheries Management Systems in the Philippines.

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Presentation outline establishing network of refugia and sanctuaries

REVERSING ENVIRONMENTAL DEGRADATION TRENDS IN THE SOUTH CHINA SEA AND GULF OF THAILANDWWW.UNEPSCS.ORG

Some Good Practices in the Establishment of Refugia, Sanctuaries, and Fisheries Management Systems in the Philippines


Presentation outline establishing network of refugia and sanctuaries

REVERSING ENVIRONMENTAL DEGRADATION TRENDS IN THE SOUTH CHINA SEA AND GULF OF THAILANDWWW.UNEPSCS.ORG

Presentation Outline

  • Establishing network of refugia and sanctuaries

  • Species specific management interventions

  • Some initiatives towards ecosystem approach


Presentation outline establishing network of refugia and sanctuaries

South

China

Sea

Lingayen

Gulf

Pacific

Ocean

Mindoro

Strait

Malampaya

Sound

Sulu

Sea

Celebes

Sea

REVERSING ENVIRONMENTAL DEGRADATION TRENDS IN THE SOUTH CHINA SEA AND GULF OF THAILANDWWW.UNEPSCS.ORG

Major areas of high larval count and presumed to have intense spawning (based on Magnusson, 1970 and Tan, 1970).


Presentation outline establishing network of refugia and sanctuaries

Batanes Islands

Ilocos Coast

Ilocos

Coast

Lingayen Gulf

Lingayen

Gulf

Subic Bay, Zambales

Subic

Bay

Zambales

Manila Bay

Manila

Bay

Batangas

Coast

Mindoro

Strait

Malampaya

Sound

Malampaya

Calamianes

Islands

No.

Palawan

KIG

KIG

Northern

Palawan

REVERSING ENVIRONMENTAL DEGRADATION TRENDS IN THE SOUTH CHINA SEA AND GULF OF THAILANDWWW.UNEPSCS.ORG

Map of western Philippines showing locations of main embayments (red squares) and other coastal areas of transboundary significance in the South China Sea.


Presentation outline establishing network of refugia and sanctuaries

REVERSING ENVIRONMENTAL DEGRADATION TRENDS IN THE SOUTH CHINA SEA AND GULF OF THAILANDWWW.UNEPSCS.ORG

Candidate refugia sites in western Philippines

  • Bolinao, Lingayen Gulf

  • Masinloc, Zambales

  • Busuanga, Calamianes


Presentation outline establishing network of refugia and sanctuaries

REVERSING ENVIRONMENTAL DEGRADATION TRENDS IN THE SOUTH CHINA SEA AND GULF OF THAILANDWWW.UNEPSCS.ORG

Participants in the various consultations

  • Local Government Units

  • Academe

  • Regional Government Agencies

  • Law Enforcers (Police, Coast Guard, Navy, Bantay Dagat)

  • Fisherfolk Organizations

  • Non-Governmental Organizations

  • People’s Organizations

  • National Committee Members


Presentation outline establishing network of refugia and sanctuaries

REVERSING ENVIRONMENTAL DEGRADATION TRENDS IN THE SOUTH CHINA SEA AND GULF OF THAILANDWWW.UNEPSCS.ORG


Presentation outline establishing network of refugia and sanctuaries

REVERSING ENVIRONMENTAL DEGRADATION TRENDS IN THE SOUTH CHINA SEA AND GULF OF THAILANDWWW.UNEPSCS.ORG

Circulation pattern

General tidal circulation in Coron Bay (Villanoy 2006).


Presentation outline establishing network of refugia and sanctuaries

REVERSING ENVIRONMENTAL DEGRADATION TRENDS IN THE SOUTH CHINA SEA AND GULF OF THAILANDWWW.UNEPSCS.ORG

Simulated dispersal

Simulated dispersal resulting from tidal circulation in Coron Bay (Villanoy 2006).


Presentation outline establishing network of refugia and sanctuaries

REVERSING ENVIRONMENTAL DEGRADATION TRENDS IN THE SOUTH CHINA SEA AND GULF OF THAILANDWWW.UNEPSCS.ORG

Simulated dispersal

Simulated dispersal with wind effects typical of April (Villanoy 2006). Red ellipses indicate areas where settled particles originate from several sources. Grey lines indicate possible but weak dispersal, apparent only after 30 days.


Presentation outline establishing network of refugia and sanctuaries

Fish Eggs

REVERSING ENVIRONMENTAL DEGRADATION TRENDS IN THE SOUTH CHINA SEA AND GULF OF THAILANDWWW.UNEPSCS.ORG

Fish eggs distribution

Density (no./100m3) distribution of fish eggs in Coron Bay in April 2004 (Campos 2004)


Presentation outline establishing network of refugia and sanctuaries

Fish Larvae

REVERSING ENVIRONMENTAL DEGRADATION TRENDS IN THE SOUTH CHINA SEA AND GULF OF THAILANDWWW.UNEPSCS.ORG

Fish larvae distribution

Density (ind./100m3) distribution of fish larvae in Coron Bay in April 2004. (Campos 2004)


Presentation outline establishing network of refugia and sanctuaries

Yolk Sac

REVERSING ENVIRONMENTAL DEGRADATION TRENDS IN THE SOUTH CHINA SEA AND GULF OF THAILANDWWW.UNEPSCS.ORG

Yolk sac larvae distribution

Distribution of yolk sac larvae in Coron Bay in April 2004 (Campos 2004)


Presentation outline establishing network of refugia and sanctuaries

REVERSING ENVIRONMENTAL DEGRADATION TRENDS IN THE SOUTH CHINA SEA AND GULF OF THAILANDWWW.UNEPSCS.ORG

Marine sanctuary sites


Presentation outline establishing network of refugia and sanctuaries

REVERSING ENVIRONMENTAL DEGRADATION TRENDS IN THE SOUTH CHINA SEA AND GULF OF THAILANDWWW.UNEPSCS.ORG

Candidate mangrove refugia


Presentation outline establishing network of refugia and sanctuaries

REVERSING ENVIRONMENTAL DEGRADATION TRENDS IN THE SOUTH CHINA SEA AND GULF OF THAILANDWWW.UNEPSCS.ORG

Closed Season for rabbit fish, Siganus canaliculatus

  • Close season during spawning season

    4th 5th and 6th day after the new moon

    monthly for the entire year or for a few months only

  • Banning of fine meshed gears catching rabbit fishes

  • Banning of selling of rabbit fishes during close season


Presentation outline establishing network of refugia and sanctuaries

Siganus canaliculatus

REVERSING ENVIRONMENTAL DEGRADATION TRENDS IN THE SOUTH CHINA SEA AND GULF OF THAILANDWWW.UNEPSCS.ORG

Closed Season for rabbit fish, Siganus canaliculatus


Presentation outline establishing network of refugia and sanctuaries

REVERSING ENVIRONMENTAL DEGRADATION TRENDS IN THE SOUTH CHINA SEA AND GULF OF THAILANDWWW.UNEPSCS.ORG

Closed Season for rabbit fish, Siganus canaliculatus

new moon

Catch monitoring data from various gears catching rabbit fish in Danajon Bank from May to July 2004


Presentation outline establishing network of refugia and sanctuaries

REVERSING ENVIRONMENTAL DEGRADATION TRENDS IN THE SOUTH CHINA SEA AND GULF OF THAILANDWWW.UNEPSCS.ORG

Major seagrass areas


Presentation outline establishing network of refugia and sanctuaries

REVERSING ENVIRONMENTAL DEGRADATION TRENDS IN THE SOUTH CHINA SEA AND GULF OF THAILANDWWW.UNEPSCS.ORG

Proposed temporal seagrass closed areas


Presentation outline establishing network of refugia and sanctuaries

REVERSING ENVIRONMENTAL DEGRADATION TRENDS IN THE SOUTH CHINA SEA AND GULF OF THAILANDWWW.UNEPSCS.ORG

Size limit on blue crab, Portunus pelagicus, and ban on harvesting of berried individuals

12 cm

  • Size limits (12 cm carapace width?)

  • Minimum crab gillnet mesh size of 10 cm (4 inches)

  • Prohibit selling and buying of berried females

  • Impounding berried females (7 days?)

  • Zoning of crab fishing gears


Presentation outline establishing network of refugia and sanctuaries

REVERSING ENVIRONMENTAL DEGRADATION TRENDS IN THE SOUTH CHINA SEA AND GULF OF THAILANDWWW.UNEPSCS.ORG

Size limit on blue crab, Portunus pelagicus, and ban on harvesting of berried individuals

Length at maturity


Presentation outline establishing network of refugia and sanctuaries

REVERSING ENVIRONMENTAL DEGRADATION TRENDS IN THE SOUTH CHINA SEA AND GULF OF THAILANDWWW.UNEPSCS.ORG


Presentation outline establishing network of refugia and sanctuaries

REVERSING ENVIRONMENTAL DEGRADATION TRENDS IN THE SOUTH CHINA SEA AND GULF OF THAILANDWWW.UNEPSCS.ORG


Presentation outline establishing network of refugia and sanctuaries

REVERSING ENVIRONMENTAL DEGRADATION TRENDS IN THE SOUTH CHINA SEA AND GULF OF THAILANDWWW.UNEPSCS.ORG


Presentation outline establishing network of refugia and sanctuaries

REVERSING ENVIRONMENTAL DEGRADATION TRENDS IN THE SOUTH CHINA SEA AND GULF OF THAILANDWWW.UNEPSCS.ORG

Minimum and maximum size limit for red grouper, Plectropomus leopardus, in Calamianes

Lm

500g - 1,000g

2 - 4 years old

Immature

Super spawners

Length frequency distribution of Plectropomus leopardus in Calamianes in 1998 (Mamauag et al. 2002)


Presentation outline establishing network of refugia and sanctuaries

REVERSING ENVIRONMENTAL DEGRADATION TRENDS IN THE SOUTH CHINA SEA AND GULF OF THAILANDWWW.UNEPSCS.ORG

Minimum and maximum size limit for red grouper, Plectropomus leopardus, in Calamianes

500g - 1,000g

Sex Selectivity?

Immature

Super spawners

Length frequency distribution of sexual development stages of Plectropomus leopardus in Calamianes (Mamauag 1997)

Lm


Presentation outline establishing network of refugia and sanctuaries

REVERSING ENVIRONMENTAL DEGRADATION TRENDS IN THE SOUTH CHINA SEA AND GULF OF THAILANDWWW.UNEPSCS.ORG

Ban on harvest of berried lobster


Presentation outline establishing network of refugia and sanctuaries

REVERSING ENVIRONMENTAL DEGRADATION TRENDS IN THE SOUTH CHINA SEA AND GULF OF THAILANDWWW.UNEPSCS.ORG

Ban on fine meshed fishing gears catching juveniles


Presentation outline establishing network of refugia and sanctuaries

REVERSING ENVIRONMENTAL DEGRADATION TRENDS IN THE SOUTH CHINA SEA AND GULF OF THAILANDWWW.UNEPSCS.ORG

Trophic level: the concept

4

Top predators

 10%

3

Prey fish

Trophic level

 10%

2

Zooplankton

 10%

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

*.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

*.

*.

*.

*.

*.

*.

*.

*.

1

Phytoplankton


Presentation outline establishing network of refugia and sanctuaries

REVERSING ENVIRONMENTAL DEGRADATION TRENDS IN THE SOUTH CHINA SEA AND GULF OF THAILANDWWW.UNEPSCS.ORG

Trophic groups


Presentation outline establishing network of refugia and sanctuaries

4

3

2

1

REVERSING ENVIRONMENTAL DEGRADATION TRENDS IN THE SOUTH CHINA SEA AND GULF OF THAILANDWWW.UNEPSCS.ORG

Average trophic level = 2.89

ahaan, awman, pugawo

(reef piscivores)

bawo, talakitok, tangigi

(pelagic piscivores)

lambay, kasag (crabs)

potpot, moong, timbungan

(soft-bottom zoobenthos feeders)

bolinao, guno (coastal planktivores)

Trophic level

mangsi, gilang maubgas (sardines)

pasayan (shrimps)

Zooplankton

banak, gisaw (algal grazers, herbivores)

Phytoplankton

Algae

Detritus


Presentation outline establishing network of refugia and sanctuaries

REVERSING ENVIRONMENTAL DEGRADATION TRENDS IN THE SOUTH CHINA SEA AND GULF OF THAILANDWWW.UNEPSCS.ORG

Simulation


Presentation outline establishing network of refugia and sanctuaries

REVERSING ENVIRONMENTAL DEGRADATION TRENDS IN THE SOUTH CHINA SEA AND GULF OF THAILANDWWW.UNEPSCS.ORG

Trend in harvestable biomass in years following intervention

Partial management

Sound management

No management


Presentation outline establishing network of refugia and sanctuaries

REVERSING ENVIRONMENTAL DEGRADATION TRENDS IN THE SOUTH CHINA SEA AND GULF OF THAILANDWWW.UNEPSCS.ORG

No management


Presentation outline establishing network of refugia and sanctuaries

REVERSING ENVIRONMENTAL DEGRADATION TRENDS IN THE SOUTH CHINA SEA AND GULF OF THAILANDWWW.UNEPSCS.ORG

Partial management


Presentation outline establishing network of refugia and sanctuaries

REVERSING ENVIRONMENTAL DEGRADATION TRENDS IN THE SOUTH CHINA SEA AND GULF OF THAILANDWWW.UNEPSCS.ORG

Sound management


Presentation outline establishing network of refugia and sanctuaries

REVERSING ENVIRONMENTAL DEGRADATION TRENDS IN THE SOUTH CHINA SEA AND GULF OF THAILANDWWW.UNEPSCS.ORG

Summary of results of simulation

  • Collapse of management regime will lead to overall decline of the harvestable biomass

  • Partial management will lead to the biggest overall increase in the harvestable biomass but drastic decline of important commodity like the “blue crab”

  • Sound management will lead to a moderate increase in the harvestable biomass but increase in the desirable species especially the carnivores


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