Chapters 31 and 32. Fungi and Eumetozoans. Chris Lysuik Kyle Kurihara Geoff Whitener. etc.usf.edu. Fungi. How do fungi acquire nutrients? They absorb nutrients from the ground by secreting digestive enzymes.
Fungi and Eumetozoans
They absorb nutrients from the ground by secreting digestive enzymes.
Fungi have evolved hyphae, (mycelium when underground) a network of tiny filaments composed of tubular cell walls surrounding the plasma membrane and cytoplasm of the cells.
They contain chitin, a strong flexible nitrogen containing polysaccaride that is also found in the external skeletons of insects and other arthropods, and septum cross walls.
They keep it stocked with inorganic nutrients essential for plant growth, they share relationships with plants, algae, cyanobacteria, and animals, promoting vigorous growth.
Without fungus, agriculture would be far less productive. Yeast commonly used as baker’s yeast and brewer’s yeast. Fungi are also used in medicine, like penicillin and also insulin.
-Flagellated Spores (zoospores)
-no true mycelium
-Allomyces sap (water mold
-zygosporangium (diploid nuclei carrier)
-R. stolonifer (bread mold)
-Asci (sac), ascocarp (fruit bodies)
-N. crassa (mold)
-Basidiocarp (fruit bodies)
Nutritional Mode, Cell Structure and Specialization, and Reproduction and Development
The ancestors of animals diverged from the ancestors of fungi as far as 1.5 billion years ago; animals probably evolved from colonial flagellated protists.
Radial Symmetry: Any imaginary cut through the center of the animal will divide it into mirror images.
Bilateral Symmetry: Animals with a left side and a right side. Only one imaginary cut divides the animal into mirror-image halves.
Cephalization is the concentration of the central nervous system in the head; it allows bilaterally symmetric animals to be more active and coordinated.
The Radiata only have 2 germ layers, the endoderm and ectoderm. The other Eumetazoa have 3 layers, the endoderm, ectoderm, and mesoderm.
-Embryonic development: Mouth formed from initial dent in Protostomes while the anus is formed from the initial dent in the Deuterostomes.-Protostomes have determinant cleavage while Deuterostomes have indeterminate cleavage. -Protostomes go through schizocoelous development while Deuterostomes go through enterocoelous development.