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Chapter 4: Insolation and Temperature. The Impact of Temperature on the Landscape. All living things influenced by temperature Adaptation to temperature extremes Temperature affects human-built landscape Temperature affects inorganic landscape components Soil and bedrock exposure.

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the impact of temperature on the landscape
The Impact of Temperature on the Landscape
  • All living things influenced by temperature
  • Adaptation to temperature extremes
  • Temperature affects human-built landscape
  • Temperature affects inorganic landscape components
    • Soil and bedrock exposure

Figure 4-1a & 4-1b

energy heat and temperature
Energy, Heat, and Temperature
  • Energy: ability to do work
  • Forms of energy
    • Kinetic – energy of movement
    • Chemical, Potential, Nuclear, etc.
  • Temperature
    • Heat
      • Movement of atoms
    • Temperature:
      • Measurement of heat
  • Temperature scales
    • Celsius
    • Fahrenheit
    • Kelvin

Figure 4-2

energy heat and temperature1
Energy, Heat, and Temperature
  • The Sun
    • Primary source of energy for Earth’s atmosphere
  • Properties of Sun
    • Average size star
    • Nuclear fusion
    • Magnitude of Sun’s energy
  • Energy spreads as it leaves the Sun
    • Travels through voids in space without loss of energy

Figure 4-3

energy heat and temperature2
Energy, Heat, and Temperature

Figure 4-4

  • Electromagnetic (EM) energy
    • EM spectrum
  • Wavelength
    • Distance between two wave crests
  • 3 important areas of EM spectrum
    • Visible radiation
    • Ultraviolet radiation
      • Too short to be seen by the human eye
    • Infrared radiation
      • Too short to be seen by the human eye

Figure 4-5

energy heat and temperature3
Energy, Heat, and Temperature
  • Insolation
    • Incoming solar radiation
    • Shortwave energy
  • Terrestrial Energy
    • Longwaveenergy
    • “Earth’s” energy

Figure 4-16

basic heating and cooling processes in the atmosphere
Basic Heating and Cooling Processes in the Atmosphere
  • Radiation
    • When objects emit EM energy
      • AKA Heat energy emitted from a body
    • Warmer objects radiate more effectively
    • Warmer objects emit at shorter wavelengths

Figure 4-6

basic heating and cooling processes in the atmosphere1
Basic Heating and Cooling Processes in the Atmosphere
  • Absorption
    • Body absorbs radiation
    • Good radiator, good absorber
  • Reflection
    • Objects repel electromagnetic waves
    • Opposite of absorption

Figure 4-7

basic heating and cooling processes in the atmosphere2
Basic Heating and Cooling Processes in the Atmosphere
  • Scattering
    • Deflection of light waves by molecules and particles
  • Transmission
    • Electromagnetic waves pass completely through a medium
    • Sunsets

Figure 4-9

basic heating and cooling processes in the atmosphere3
Basic Heating and Cooling Processes in the Atmosphere
  • Greenhouse effect
    • Some atmospheric gases transmit shortwave radiation, but not Earth’s longwave radiation
    • Earth radiation held in by atmosphere
    • Atmospheric blanket

Figures 4-11 & 4-12

basic heating and cooling processes in the atmosphere4
Basic Heating and Cooling Processes in the Atmosphere
  • Conduction
    • Transfer of heat energy across a medium
    • Energy moves from molecule to another one without changing molecular positions
      • AKA direct heat transfer by contact
    • Molecules become agitated, then vibrate & collide with cooler molecules, transferring heat energy

Figure 4-13

basic heating and cooling processes in the atmosphere5
Basic Heating and Cooling Processes in the Atmosphere
  • Convection
    • Heat transfer by vertical circulation in a moving substance
    • Vertical convection cell
      • Warm air gains heat, expands & rises
      • Cool air loses heat, contracts & sinks
  • Advection
    • Horizontal transfer of heat in a moving fluid
    • AKA wind

Figure 4-14

basic heating and cooling processes in the atmosphere6
Basic Heating and Cooling Processes in the Atmosphere
  • Adiabatic Cooling and Warming
    • Change in pressure & thus temperature of rising or descending air
  • Adiabatic cooling
    • Air rises and expands, molecular collisions decrease, so temperature decreases
  • Adiabatic warming
    • Air sinks and compresses, collisions increase so temperatures increase

Figure 4-15

basic heating and cooling processes in the atmosphere7
Basic Heating and Cooling Processes in the Atmosphere
  • Latent heat
    • Heat released or absorbed during a phase change
    • AKA “hidden heat” since latent heat is not felt
    • Evaporation: liquid water is converted to water vapor
      • Cooling process
    • Condensation: water vapor is converted to liquid water
      • Warming process
the heating of the atmosphere
The Heating of the Atmosphere
  • Balance between shortwave incoming solar radiation & outgoing longwave solar radiation
  • Albedo
    • The higher the albedo, the more radiation the object reflects

Figure 4-16

the heating of the atmosphere global energy budget1
The Heating of the Atmosphere: Global Energy Budget
  • Earth does not distribute heat evenly through space & time
    • Cause of weather and climate
variations in heating by latitude and season
Variations in Heating by Latitude and Season
  • Angle of incidence
    • Angle the Sun’s rays strike Earth’s surface
    • The higher the angle, the more intense the radiation

Figure 4-18

variations in heating by latitude and season1
Variations in Heating by Latitude and Season
  • Atmospheric obstructions
    • Clouds, haze, particulates, etc. decrease insolation

Figure 3-4

Figure 4-20

variations in heating by latitude and season2
Variations in Heating by Latitude and Season
  • Day length
    • The longer the day, the more insolation is received

Figure 4-19

variations in heating by latitude and season3
Variations in Heating by Latitude and Season
  • Latitudinal radiation balance and the world distribution of insolation
    • Belt of max solar energy that moves through the tropics following the Sun’s direct rays

Figure 4-21

land and water contrasts
Land and Water Contrasts
  • Land heats and cools more rapidly than water due to:
    • Specific heat
    • Transmission
    • Mobility
    • Evaporative cooling

Figure 4-23

land and water contrast implications
Land and Water Contrast Implications
  • Oceans = more moderate climates
  • Hottest & coldest places on Earth are interiors of continents
  • N. (land) vs. S. (water) Hemisphere

Figure 4-24

mechanisms of heat transfer
Mechanisms of Heat Transfer
  • Need heat transfer to prevent constant warming at tropics & cooling at poles
  • Circulation patterns in atmosphere and oceans transfer heat
mechanisms of heat transfer1
Mechanisms of Heat Transfer
  • 2 mechanisms move heat poleward in both hemispheres, driven by latitudinal imbalance of heat
    • Atmospheric circulation (Ch 5)
    • Oceanic circulation
    • Direct relationship between atmospheric and oceanic circulation
      • Air blowing over the ocean creates major surface ocean currents
      • Heat energy stored by oceans affects atmospheric circulation
mechanisms of heat transfer2
Mechanisms of Heat Transfer
  • Northern and southern variations
    • Near N. Hemisphere pole, landmasses lie so close that little flow can enter the Arctic Ocean
    • In S. Hemisphere, little land mass allows for constant westward belt of ocean circulation called West Wind Drift
      • Southern Ocean
        • (AKA the 5th Ocean)
mechanisms of heat transfer3
Mechanisms of Heat Transfer
  • Temperature patterns
    • Poleward currents transfer warm water poleward
    • Equatorial currents transfer cool water equatorward

Figure 4-25

mechanisms of heat transfer4
Mechanisms of Heat Transfer

Figure 4-26

  • Rounding out the pattern
    • NW portions of N. Hemisphere receive cool water from Arctic Ocean
    • Water pulled away from western coasts of continents = upwelling
    • Deep ocean circulation
      • Global conveyor belt
      • Tied to short-term climate change
vertical temperature patterns
Vertical Temperature Patterns
  • Environmental lapse rate
    • Normal vertical temperature gradient
  • Average lapse rate
    • 6.5°C/km or 6.5°C/1000m)
  • Temperature inversions
    • Surface inversions
    • Upper air inversions

Figures 4-27 & 4-28

global temperature patterns
Global Temperature Patterns
  • Global temperature maps
    • Seasonal extremes
      • January & July
    • BROAD understanding of temperature patterns
    • Isotherm: line connecting points of equal temperature
global temperature patterns1
Global Temperature Patterns
  • Primary controls on global temperature
    • Altitude
      • Temperature decreases with altitude
    • Latitude
      • Fundamental cause of temperature variation
      • Temperature with latitude
    • Land–Water contrasts
      • Continents have higher summer & lower winter temps than oceans
    • Ocean currents
      • Cool currents push isotherms equatorward; warm currents push isotherms poleward

Figure 4-29 – average January temperature

Figure 4-30 – average July temperature

global temperature patterns2
Global Temperature Patterns
  • Seasonal patterns
    • Latitudinal shift in isotherms from one season to another
    • More pronounced over continents than water and over high latitudes than low latitudes

Figure 4-31

global temperature patterns3
Global Temperature Patterns
  • Annual temperature range
    • Difference in average temperature of warmest and coldest months (usually Jan & July)

Figure 4-32

global warming and the greenhouse effect
Global Warming and the Greenhouse Effect
  • Climate of Earth is becoming warmer, known as global warming
    • Air temp increases when atmospheric gases trap longwave radiation
  • Human-enhanced greenhouse effect
    • Carbon dioxide main culprit
    • Also methane, nitrous oxide, CFC’s
  • Intergovermental Panel on Climate Change

Figure 4-33

global warming and the greenhouse effect1
Global Warming and the Greenhouse Effect
  • Relationship between carbon dioxide and temperature

Figure 4-35

summary
Summary
  • Temperature affects both living and nonliving aspects of Earth’s landscape
  • Energy exists in many different forms, but cannot be created or destroyed
  • Temperature is a measure of the amount of kinetic energy in the molecules of a substance
  • Temperature is measured on three primary scales
  • The Sun is the primary source of energy for Earth’s atmosphere
  • Electromagnetic radiation is classified by wavelength
  • The Sun emits three important types of electromagnetic radiation: visible, infrared, and ultraviolet
  • Insolation refers to incoming solar radiation
  • Radiation is the process by which electromagnetic radiation is emitted by an object
  • Radiation can undergo several processes, including absorption, reflection, transmission, and scattering
  • The greenhouse effect makes Earth able to support life
summary1
Summary
  • Conduction is the transfer of heat through molecular collision
  • Convection is a vertical transport of heat in a fluid
  • Advection is the horizontal transport of heat
  • Adiabatic cooling and warming processes do not release or absorb heat
  • The global radiation budget describes the latitudinal distribution of temperature
  • Land surfaces heat and cool faster than water surfaces
  • Heat is transferred globally through atmospheric and oceanic circulations
  • The vertical temperature patterns in the atmosphere help describe vertical circulations
  • Global warming is the observed warming of the atmosphere
  • Temperature and carbon dioxide show a close relationship
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