Chapter 4 insolation and temperature
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Chapter 4: Insolation and Temperature. The Impact of Temperature on the Landscape. All living things influenced by temperature Adaptation to temperature extremes Temperature affects human-built landscape Temperature affects inorganic landscape components Soil and bedrock exposure.

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Chapter 4: Insolation and Temperature

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Chapter 4 insolation and temperature

Chapter 4: Insolation and Temperature


The impact of temperature on the landscape

The Impact of Temperature on the Landscape

  • All living things influenced by temperature

  • Adaptation to temperature extremes

  • Temperature affects human-built landscape

  • Temperature affects inorganic landscape components

    • Soil and bedrock exposure

Figure 4-1a & 4-1b


Energy heat and temperature

Energy, Heat, and Temperature

  • Energy: ability to do work

  • Forms of energy

    • Kinetic – energy of movement

    • Chemical, Potential, Nuclear, etc.

  • Temperature

    • Heat

      • Movement of atoms

    • Temperature:

      • Measurement of heat

  • Temperature scales

    • Celsius

    • Fahrenheit

    • Kelvin

Figure 4-2


Energy heat and temperature1

Energy, Heat, and Temperature

  • The Sun

    • Primary source of energy for Earth’s atmosphere

  • Properties of Sun

    • Average size star

    • Nuclear fusion

    • Magnitude of Sun’s energy

  • Energy spreads as it leaves the Sun

    • Travels through voids in space without loss of energy

Figure 4-3


Energy heat and temperature2

Energy, Heat, and Temperature

Figure 4-4

  • Electromagnetic (EM) energy

    • EM spectrum

  • Wavelength

    • Distance between two wave crests

  • 3 important areas of EM spectrum

    • Visible radiation

    • Ultraviolet radiation

      • Too short to be seen by the human eye

    • Infrared radiation

      • Too short to be seen by the human eye

Figure 4-5


Energy heat and temperature3

Energy, Heat, and Temperature

  • Insolation

    • Incoming solar radiation

    • Shortwave energy

  • Terrestrial Energy

    • Longwaveenergy

    • “Earth’s” energy

Figure 4-16


Basic heating and cooling processes in the atmosphere

Basic Heating and Cooling Processes in the Atmosphere

  • Radiation

    • When objects emit EM energy

      • AKA Heat energy emitted from a body

    • Warmer objects radiate more effectively

    • Warmer objects emit at shorter wavelengths

Figure 4-6


Basic heating and cooling processes in the atmosphere1

Basic Heating and Cooling Processes in the Atmosphere

  • Absorption

    • Body absorbs radiation

    • Good radiator, good absorber

  • Reflection

    • Objects repel electromagnetic waves

    • Opposite of absorption

Figure 4-7


Basic heating and cooling processes in the atmosphere2

Basic Heating and Cooling Processes in the Atmosphere

  • Scattering

    • Deflection of light waves by molecules and particles

  • Transmission

    • Electromagnetic waves pass completely through a medium

    • Sunsets

Figure 4-9


Basic heating and cooling processes in the atmosphere3

Basic Heating and Cooling Processes in the Atmosphere

  • Greenhouse effect

    • Some atmospheric gases transmit shortwave radiation, but not Earth’s longwave radiation

    • Earth radiation held in by atmosphere

    • Atmospheric blanket

Figures 4-11 & 4-12


Basic heating and cooling processes in the atmosphere4

Basic Heating and Cooling Processes in the Atmosphere

  • Conduction

    • Transfer of heat energy across a medium

    • Energy moves from molecule to another one without changing molecular positions

      • AKA direct heat transfer by contact

    • Molecules become agitated, then vibrate & collide with cooler molecules, transferring heat energy

Figure 4-13


Basic heating and cooling processes in the atmosphere5

Basic Heating and Cooling Processes in the Atmosphere

  • Convection

    • Heat transfer by vertical circulation in a moving substance

    • Vertical convection cell

      • Warm air gains heat, expands & rises

      • Cool air loses heat, contracts & sinks

  • Advection

    • Horizontal transfer of heat in a moving fluid

    • AKA wind

Figure 4-14


Chapter 4 insolation and temperature

Radiation, Conduction & Convection Operating Simultaneously


Basic heating and cooling processes in the atmosphere6

Basic Heating and Cooling Processes in the Atmosphere

  • Adiabatic Cooling and Warming

    • Change in pressure & thus temperature of rising or descending air

  • Adiabatic cooling

    • Air rises and expands, molecular collisions decrease, so temperature decreases

  • Adiabatic warming

    • Air sinks and compresses, collisions increase so temperatures increase

Figure 4-15


Basic heating and cooling processes in the atmosphere7

Basic Heating and Cooling Processes in the Atmosphere

  • Latent heat

    • Heat released or absorbed during a phase change

    • AKA “hidden heat” since latent heat is not felt

    • Evaporation: liquid water is converted to water vapor

      • Cooling process

    • Condensation: water vapor is converted to liquid water

      • Warming process


The heating of the atmosphere

The Heating of the Atmosphere

  • Balance between shortwave incoming solar radiation & outgoing longwave solar radiation

  • Albedo

    • The higher the albedo, the more radiation the object reflects

Figure 4-16


The heating of the atmosphere global energy budget

The Heating of the Atmosphere: Global Energy Budget

  • Energy in = Energy out

Figure 4-17


The heating of the atmosphere global energy budget1

The Heating of the Atmosphere: Global Energy Budget

  • Earth does not distribute heat evenly through space & time

    • Cause of weather and climate


Variations in heating by latitude and season

Variations in Heating by Latitude and Season

  • Angle of incidence

    • Angle the Sun’s rays strike Earth’s surface

    • The higher the angle, the more intense the radiation

Figure 4-18


Variations in heating by latitude and season1

Variations in Heating by Latitude and Season

  • Atmospheric obstructions

    • Clouds, haze, particulates, etc. decrease insolation

Figure 3-4

Figure 4-20


Variations in heating by latitude and season2

Variations in Heating by Latitude and Season

  • Day length

    • The longer the day, the more insolation is received

Figure 4-19


Variations in heating by latitude and season3

Variations in Heating by Latitude and Season

  • Latitudinal radiation balance and the world distribution of insolation

    • Belt of max solar energy that moves through the tropics following the Sun’s direct rays

Figure 4-21


Land and water contrasts

Land and Water Contrasts

  • Land heats and cools more rapidly than water due to:

    • Specific heat

    • Transmission

    • Mobility

    • Evaporative cooling

Figure 4-23


Land and water contrast implications

Land and Water Contrast Implications

  • Oceans = more moderate climates

  • Hottest & coldest places on Earth are interiors of continents

  • N. (land) vs. S. (water) Hemisphere

Figure 4-24


Mechanisms of heat transfer

Mechanisms of Heat Transfer

  • Need heat transfer to prevent constant warming at tropics & cooling at poles

  • Circulation patterns in atmosphere and oceans transfer heat


Mechanisms of heat transfer1

Mechanisms of Heat Transfer

  • 2 mechanisms move heat poleward in both hemispheres, driven by latitudinal imbalance of heat

    • Atmospheric circulation (Ch 5)

    • Oceanic circulation

    • Direct relationship between atmospheric and oceanic circulation

      • Air blowing over the ocean creates major surface ocean currents

      • Heat energy stored by oceans affects atmospheric circulation


Mechanisms of heat transfer2

Mechanisms of Heat Transfer

  • Northern and southern variations

    • Near N. Hemisphere pole, landmasses lie so close that little flow can enter the Arctic Ocean

    • In S. Hemisphere, little land mass allows for constant westward belt of ocean circulation called West Wind Drift

      • Southern Ocean

        • (AKA the 5th Ocean)


Mechanisms of heat transfer3

Mechanisms of Heat Transfer

  • Temperature patterns

    • Poleward currents transfer warm water poleward

    • Equatorial currents transfer cool water equatorward

Figure 4-25


Mechanisms of heat transfer4

Mechanisms of Heat Transfer

Figure 4-26

  • Rounding out the pattern

    • NW portions of N. Hemisphere receive cool water from Arctic Ocean

    • Water pulled away from western coasts of continents = upwelling

    • Deep ocean circulation

      • Global conveyor belt

      • Tied to short-term climate change


Vertical temperature patterns

Vertical Temperature Patterns

  • Environmental lapse rate

    • Normal vertical temperature gradient

  • Average lapse rate

    • 6.5°C/km or 6.5°C/1000m)

  • Temperature inversions

    • Surface inversions

    • Upper air inversions

Figures 4-27 & 4-28


Global temperature patterns

Global Temperature Patterns

  • Global temperature maps

    • Seasonal extremes

      • January & July

    • BROAD understanding of temperature patterns

    • Isotherm: line connecting points of equal temperature


Global temperature patterns1

Global Temperature Patterns

  • Primary controls on global temperature

    • Altitude

      • Temperature decreases with altitude

    • Latitude

      • Fundamental cause of temperature variation

      • Temperature with latitude

    • Land–Water contrasts

      • Continents have higher summer & lower winter temps than oceans

    • Ocean currents

      • Cool currents push isotherms equatorward; warm currents push isotherms poleward

Figure 4-29 – average January temperature

Figure 4-30 – average July temperature


Global temperature patterns2

Global Temperature Patterns

  • Seasonal patterns

    • Latitudinal shift in isotherms from one season to another

    • More pronounced over continents than water and over high latitudes than low latitudes

Figure 4-31


Global temperature patterns3

Global Temperature Patterns

  • Annual temperature range

    • Difference in average temperature of warmest and coldest months (usually Jan & July)

Figure 4-32


Global warming and the greenhouse effect

Global Warming and the Greenhouse Effect

  • Climate of Earth is becoming warmer, known as global warming

    • Air temp increases when atmospheric gases trap longwave radiation

  • Human-enhanced greenhouse effect

    • Carbon dioxide main culprit

    • Also methane, nitrous oxide, CFC’s

  • Intergovermental Panel on Climate Change

Figure 4-33


Global warming and the greenhouse effect1

Global Warming and the Greenhouse Effect

  • Relationship between carbon dioxide and temperature

Figure 4-35


Summary

Summary

  • Temperature affects both living and nonliving aspects of Earth’s landscape

  • Energy exists in many different forms, but cannot be created or destroyed

  • Temperature is a measure of the amount of kinetic energy in the molecules of a substance

  • Temperature is measured on three primary scales

  • The Sun is the primary source of energy for Earth’s atmosphere

  • Electromagnetic radiation is classified by wavelength

  • The Sun emits three important types of electromagnetic radiation: visible, infrared, and ultraviolet

  • Insolation refers to incoming solar radiation

  • Radiation is the process by which electromagnetic radiation is emitted by an object

  • Radiation can undergo several processes, including absorption, reflection, transmission, and scattering

  • The greenhouse effect makes Earth able to support life


Summary1

Summary

  • Conduction is the transfer of heat through molecular collision

  • Convection is a vertical transport of heat in a fluid

  • Advection is the horizontal transport of heat

  • Adiabatic cooling and warming processes do not release or absorb heat

  • The global radiation budget describes the latitudinal distribution of temperature

  • Land surfaces heat and cool faster than water surfaces

  • Heat is transferred globally through atmospheric and oceanic circulations

  • The vertical temperature patterns in the atmosphere help describe vertical circulations

  • Global warming is the observed warming of the atmosphere

  • Temperature and carbon dioxide show a close relationship


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