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Argument Against. Andre Peralta. Biological Weapons. Include Bacteria, Fungus, or Virus’. -anthrax(fungus), smallpox(virus), plague(bacteria) Could also include the use of insects as weapons. Cont.. Biological weapons affect any living organisms or can affect the environment.

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Argument Against

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Argument against

Argument Against

Andre Peralta


Biological weapons

Biological Weapons

  • Include Bacteria, Fungus, or Virus’.

    -anthrax(fungus), smallpox(virus), plague(bacteria)

  • Could also include the use of insects as weapons.


Argument against

Cont.

  • Biological weapons affect any living organisms or can affect the environment.

  • Affects People (combatants and non combatants alike), animals, crops, water, soil.

  • They have the possibility of being very infectious. They may spread through the air, through contact, or through ingestion.

  • Biological weapons can certainly be seen as cruel since they have the potential to induce so much suffering and can kill millions indiscriminately.


Contamination

Contamination

  • It is possible that in countries without proper precautionary regulations, personnel, and infrastructure, and even in those with them, for an accidental release of these weapons to occur.


Incidents

Incidents

  • The largest biological weapons accident known– anthrax outbreak in Sverdlovsk in the Soviet Union in 1979, sheep became ill with anthrax as far as 200 kilometers from the release point of the organism from a military facility in the southeastern portion of the city and is still off limits to visitors today.

  • Killed at least 66 people

  • The effects of chemical weapons are particularly horrifying.


Chemical weapons

Chemical Weapons

  • phosgene, a choking agent irritates the eyes and respiratory tract.

  • hydrogen cyanide, blood agent which prevents transfer of oxygen to the tissues.

  • Nerve agents, which block an enzyme that is necessary for functions of the central nervous system.

  • Various blistering agents cause painful burning to the tissues.

  • Some cause sores on the skin, vomiting, respiratory dysfunction, mental impairment, damage to the immune and nervous systems, infertility, and death.


Argument against

Cont.

  • Many of the world’s powers have produced vast quantities of chemical weapons.

  • Since these nations haven’t used these weapons, disposing of them is a particularly difficult problem.

  • In some cases, the weapons were sunk to the bottom of all the worlds oceans in the holds of expendable ships.

  • About 500 people around the world—mostly fishermen—have been injured by the weapons since 1946.

  • There are 32 disposal sites off United States shores.

  • Will take $3.2 billion in spending to build additional plants in Kentucky and Colorado to dispose of the U.S.’s remaining chemical weapons stockpile.


Incidents1

Incidents

  • World War II: Millions of people were killed in nazi concentration camps gas chambers with carbon monoxide and hydrogen cyanide.

  • Saddam Hussein used chemical weapons in the 1980s against Kurdish civilians.

  • Iran-Iraq War: Mustard gas was used extensively

  •  Nerve gas agents killed about 20,000 Iranian soldiers .Of the 90,000 survivors, some 5,000 seek medical treatment regularly and about 1,000 are still hospitalized with severe, chronic conditions.


Argument for

Argument For

Chase Calvin


Proliferation of weapons

Proliferation of weapons

  • Despite international deterrence and the Chemical weapons Convention (CWC), some nations continue to research/ employ chemical and biological weapons

  • The Chemical weapons convention requires all chemical weapons to be destroyed by 2012


Nations suspected of nonconformance

Nations suspected of nonconformance

  • The following nations are suspected of continued research or stockpiling of chemical weapons: Albania, Burma, China, Egypt, France, India, Iran, Israel, Japan, Libya, North Korea, Pakistan, Russia, Serbia and Montenegro, Sudan, Syria, Taiwan, the U.S, and Vietnam

  • Most notable offenders to follow


Egypt

Egypt

  • Listed as “probable” suspect of stockpiled weapons

  • Thought to possess facilities to make Sarin, VX, mustard gas, and phosgene

  • Causes : employment of mustard gas in the yemeni civil war, believed to have supplied syria with chemical agents in the 70’s, and Iraq in the 80’s


Libya

Libya

  • Employed limited use of chemical weapons in the 80’s

  • Produced mustard gas, sarin, and phosgene in the late 80’s

  • U.N sanctions shut down what was suspected as the leading chemical weapons production lab in the world at that time in the late 90’s (Rabta industrial Complex)

  • Agreed to CWC in 2004


North korea

North Korea

  • Did not sign Chemical Weapons Convention

  • Has been producing chemical weapons since mid 50’s

  • Over 13 possible sites identified as potential research or production centers

  • Produces an estimated 4500 tons of weapons each year

  • Has many delivery systems at its disposal for utilizing weapons produced.


Argument against

  • http://www.globalsecurity.org/wmd/intro/cw.htm

  • http://www.slic2.wsu.edu:82/hurlbert/micro101/pages/101biologicalweapons.html#disadvantagesofBW

  • http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Iraq_and_weapons_of_mass_destruction#Chemical_weapon_attacks

  • http://www.mbari.org/news/homepage/2008/chemweapons.html

  • http://www.fas.org/sgp/crs/natsec/RL33432.pdf


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