Mitochondrial dna maintenance disorders
Download
1 / 18

Mitochondrial DNA maintenance disorders - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


  • 166 Views
  • Uploaded on

Mitochondrial DNA maintenance disorders. Carl Fratter Oxford Medical Genetics Labs. Autosomal disorders of mitochondrial DNA maintenance. Unique group of disorders involving defects in both of the genomes within human cells

loader
I am the owner, or an agent authorized to act on behalf of the owner, of the copyrighted work described.
capcha
Download Presentation

PowerPoint Slideshow about ' Mitochondrial DNA maintenance disorders' - karim


An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.


- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript
Mitochondrial dna maintenance disorders

Mitochondrial DNA maintenance disorders

Carl Fratter

Oxford Medical Genetics Labs


Autosomal disorders of mitochondrial dna maintenance
Autosomal disorders of mitochondrial DNA maintenance

  • Unique group of disorders involving defects in both of the genomes within human cells

    • Primary nuclear gene defect in a gene that affects mitochondrial DNA replication

    • Secondary mitochondrial DNA defect – tissue-specific


Autosomal disorders of mitochondrial dna maintenance1
Autosomal disorders of mitochondrial DNA maintenance

mtDNA

Depleted

Multiple

Deletions

Normal

 tissue-specific oxidative phosphorylation defects

 disease symptoms


Disorders associated with multiple mtdna deletions
Disorders associated with multiple mtDNA deletions:

  • Progressive external ophthalmoplegia with mitochondrial DNA deletions

    • Autosomal dominant

      • PEOA1 – POLG (2001)

      • PEOA2 – ANT1 (2000)

      • PEOA3 – Twinkle (PEO1) (2001)

      • PEOA4 – POLG2 (2006)

    • Autosomal recessive

      • PEOB1 – POLG (2001)

        [note: POLG can cause AD or AR disease; any given mutation is either associated with AD or AR disease]

  • Other:

    • MIRAS– POLG (2005)

    • SANDO– POLG (2003)

    • MNGIE– ECGF1 (thymidine phosphorylase) (1999)

    • MNGIE without leukoencephalopathy – POLG (2003)

    • Optic Atrophy ‘plus’ – OPA1 (2007)


Disorders associated with mtdna depletion
Disorders associated with mtDNA depletion:

  • Alpers syndrome

    • POLG (2004)

  • Hepatocerebral form

    • DGUOK (2002)

    • MPV17 (2006)

    • PEO1 (2007)

  • Encephalomyopathic form

    • SUCLA2 (2005)

    • RRM2B (2007)

  • Myopathic form

    • TK2 (2001)

[All autosomal recessive]



Diagnosis of autosomal disorders of mtdna maintenance
Diagnosis of autosomal disorders of mtDNA maintenance

  • 2 complementary approaches -

    Analysis of secondary mitochondrial DNA defects:

  • Multiple mtDNA deletions:

    • Testing of muscle DNA

    • Long range PCR

    • Southern blotting

  • MtDNA depletion:

    • Testing of muscle or liver DNA

    • Real-time PCR assay to compare mtDNA copy number to that for an autosomal nuclear gene

    • Results are compared to normal controls

      BUT availability of affected tissue can be a problem


Diagnosis of autosomal disorders of mtdna maintenance1
Diagnosis of autosomal disorders of mtDNA maintenance

Analysis of primary nuclear gene defects:

  • Any DNA sample is suitable

  • POLG analysis:

    • Restriction digest PCR analysis for 3 particularly common POLG mutations: p.A467T, p.W748S, p.G848S.

    • If appropriate, DNA sequencing of the entire coding region of POLG is undertaken

  • PEO1 (Twinkle) analysis

    • DNA sequencing of part of coding region

  • ANT1 analysis

    • DNA sequencing of coding region


Overview of results
Overview of Results

  • Mutations in the POLG gene are a major cause of autosomal disorders of mtDNA maintenance, accounting for 25% of patients with PEO with mtDNA deletions and 67% of patients with a possible diagnosis of Alpers syndrome in our cohort.

  • Most POLG gene mutations are associated with recessive disease, and there are several common founder mutations.

  • There appear to be genotype:phenotype correlations associated with some POLG mutations.


Overview of results1
Overview of Results

  • Mutations in the PEO1 gene also account for a significant proportion (18%) of PEO with mtDNA deletions in our cohort.

  • Mutation screening of ANT1 recently introduced as a service:

    • Mutations identified in 1 out of 23 patients with PEO with mtDNA deletions and no mutation identified in POLG or PEO1

    • Therefore, mutations in ANT1 appear to be a relatively rare cause of PEO

  • For POLG, PEO1 and ANT1, the vast majority of mutations are missense changes.


Case 1 ad

3

EM

AD

NA

PD

Key:

PEO, ptosis

Mild symptoms of mito myopathy

2

2

2

Case 1: AD


Case 1 ad1
Case 1: AD

AD

Mult

Del

Ctrl

Single

Del

Ctrl

Normal

Ctrl

Average

Exposure

Time

16.6 kb

Normal fragment

11.6 kb

fragment

8.6 kb fragment

(8 kb deletion)

Long

Exposure

Time


Case 1 ad2
Case 1: AD

Inferred

[T251I;P587L] het

Inferred

[R227W]+[T251I;P587L]

NA

EM

AD

PD

[R227W]+

[T251I;P587L]

[T251I;P587L]+

[T251I;P587L]

[R227W]+

[T251I;P587L]

[R227W]+

[T251I;P587L]


Case 2 so
Case 2: SO

  • Patient SO, died aged 1 year, movement disorder, hypotonia, abnormal liver function  possible diagnosis of Alpers syndrome

  • MtDNA depletion in liver identified prior to reports of POLG mutations in Alpers

  • Subsequently, POLG testing initiated…..


Case 2: SO – DNA results

c.1879C>T; p.R627W

Exon 10

SO

Normal

c.2740A>C; p.T914P

Exon 18

SO

Normal


Case 2: SO – DNA results (contd)

  • p.T914P & p.R627W are previously reported mutations

  • Compound heterozygosity confirmed by testing the parents

  • Can offer prenatal diagnosis – CVS planned in the next few weeks


Summary
Summary

  • Mutations in the POLG gene are a major cause of autosomal disorders of mtDNA maintenance, and lead to a broad spectrum of disorders (from mild PEO to Alpers)

    • Mainly autosomal recessive

    • Common founder mutations

  • Mutations in the PEO1 gene are a major cause of autosomal dominant PEO

  • Mutations in the ANT1 gene are a relatively rare cause of autosomal dominant PEO


Acknowledgements
Acknowledgements

  • Molecular Genetics Lab, The Churchill:

    • Conrad Smith

    • Julie Evans

    • Anthony O’Rourke

    • Iain Dow

    • Helen Lord

    • Anneke Seller

  • NDOG, John Radcliffe Hospital:

    • Prof Jo Poulton


ad