the promise and peril of democratization 1830 1848
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The Promise and Peril of Democratization: 1830 & 1848

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The Promise and Peril of Democratization: 1830 & 1848. I. Turmoil after the Congress of Vienna. Shadow of the French Revolution Democratization of industrial society. A. A Legacy of Resistance. 1. Napoleon spread the ideals of Revolution - independence movements throughout Europe

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i turmoil after the congress of vienna
I. Turmoil after the Congress of Vienna

Shadow of the French Revolution

Democratization of industrial society

a a legacy of resistance
A. A Legacy of Resistance

1. Napoleon spread the ideals of Revolution

- independence movements throughout Europe

2. Industrialization put up some barriers, broke down others- class & gender ideologies politicized middle and working classes - classes alternately cooperated, competed

3. The Peterloo

Massacre, 1819- “corn laws”- Six Acts

4. The Karlsbad Decrees, 1819

- German students challenge power of larger German states- censorship, authoritarianism

Reaction led to greater resistance

b grassroots democratization
B. Grassroots democratization

1. Britain: Reform Bill of 1832

- “rotten boroughs”: parliamentary reform- middle-class suffrage

2. Chartist Movement- universal suffrage- rise of the Liberal Party

3. Jacksonian Democracy in America- anti-institutional politics- Age of the Common Man

4. Student movements in Germany and France- open to the middle class- generation of radicals

ii the forgotten revolution 1830
II. The “forgotten” revolution: 1830

National Independence


Economic Justice

a struggles for independence
A. Struggles for Independence

1. Greece, 1820sa. Russia, Britain, France conspire for Greeksb. popular among Western romantics

- Lord Byron

Dying as their father died

For the God their foes denied

2. Belgium, 1830

- part of the Netherlands, but Catholic

- Great Powers fearful of Belgian democracy- British guarantee neutrality: “Balance of Power”

3. Poland had long been under Russian, Prussian & Austrian control

- Napoleon left behind strong revolutionary legacy

- 1830: cadets and students in Warsaw riot, aristocracy timid

Russians deploy 180K troops to crush the rebellion

4. Italy, 1831

- Mazzini, young Italians try

to drive Austria out of Northern Italy

- gives birth to the underground “Young Italy” Movement

Populist, grassroots unification movements generally failed

b revolution in france revisited
B. Revolution in France, revisited

1. Charles X and absolutism

- ancien regime

2. Dismisses Chamber of Deputies

- election of 1827

- the Four Ordinances

3. July 1830

  • Workers, Republican Party seize Paris
4. “July Monarchy”

- install Louise-Philippe as Constitutional Monarch

- MC “sells-out” the workers

5. Intermittent class conflict

Victor Hugo, Les Miserables

legacies of 1830 the forgotten revolutions
Legacies of 1830: the “Forgotten” Revolutions
  • Liberal / conservative forces energized

This tension will continue to build for another 20 years

iii revolution of 1848
III. Revolution of 1848




1. Strong university tradition, growing middle class

2. Frederick Wilhelm IV agrees to Prussian national assembly - March 1848

3. Frankfurt Assembly

- liberal unification

- “crown from the gutter”

b austria
B. Austria

1. Fought nationalist uprisings in Hungary, Italy, and Prague

2. 1850, “Humiliation of Olmutz”

In the German states including Austria and Prussia, the Revolution of 1848 led to the concentration of Reactionary (conservative) power

Future “liberal” reform stood little chance of success

c france
C. France

1. Louis-Philippe failed to solve economic problems

- crackdown on “banquet” campaign

2. 2nd Republic declared in 1848

- moderates (constitutional reforms)

- radicals (universal suffrage; social programs)

3. The Luxembourg Commission

- Louis Blanc

4. Different goals for Revolution

- “June Days”: workers create a socialist commune within Paris

legacies of revolutions
Legacies of Revolutions

1. Britain expands democratic institutions

2. France dichotomous political culture

3. Growing distance between authoritarian and liberal states