J ets at differe nt scales and the connection with accretion
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J ets at differe nt scales and the connection with accretion. L. Maraschi and F.Tavecchio INAF - Osservatorio Astronomico di Brera. Outline. Can probe small and large scales within the same jet  The power connection within jets Can probe jet and accretion disk in the same AGN

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J ets at differe nt scales and the connection with accretion

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J ets at differe nt scales and the connection with accretion

Jets at different scales and the connection with accretion

L. Maraschi and F.Tavecchio

INAF - Osservatorio Astronomico di Brera


Outline

Outline

  • Can probe small and large scales within the same jet

  • The power connection within jets

  • Can probe jet and accretion disk in the same AGN

  • The power connection between jets and accretion

Xi’an 16-21 October 2006 Laura Maraschi INAF – Osservatorio Astronomico di Brera


J ets at differe nt scales and the connection with accretion

To extended jet

The blazar em.reg.

The accretion disk

Xi’an 16-21 October 2006 Laura Maraschi INAF – Osservatorio Astronomico di Brera


J ets at differe nt scales and the connection with accretion

EC/CMB

Synchro

Jet scales

Resolved X-ray jet

10 – 100 kpc scale

Blazar emission region

sub-pc scale

Accretion region

Jet origin

R_S scale

Xi’an 16-21 October 2006 Laura Maraschi INAF – Osservatorio Astronomico di Brera


Radiation mechanisms synchro ic on different photons in all regions

Radiation mechanisms Synchro+IC (on different photons)in all regions

  • W(Radiation Energy Density)

  • K (rel. El. Density), B (mag.F.)

  • Delta/gamma (beam./Lorentz factor)

  • Essential parameters: 4

  • Conditions: 4 (from the seds)

  • Blazar reg: ls, lc, 2 peak frequencies

  • Large scale: ls, lc , equipart., CMB

Xi’an 16-21 October 2006 Laura Maraschi INAF – Osservatorio Astronomico di Brera


J ets at differe nt scales and the connection with accretion

Blazars: the SEDs

Fossati et al. 1998; Donato et al. 2001

RED

FSRQ

Spectral Energy

Distributions of

the jet cores:

Two components,

synchrotron and

Inverse Compton :

Gamma – rays

important to constrain

model parameters

th

Th

BL Lacs

BLUE

Xi’an 16-21 October 2006 Laura Maraschi INAF – Osservatorio Astronomico di Brera


J ets at differe nt scales and the connection with accretion

Chandra: probing large-scale jets

PKS 0637-752: the first

Chandra jet

Schwartz et al. 1999

Interpretation: IC from CMB

Tavecchio et al. 2000; Celotti et al. 2001

Xi’an 16-21 October 2006 Laura Maraschi INAF – Osservatorio Astronomico di Brera


Gamma ray blazars with resolved x ray jets

Gamma-ray Blazars with resolved X-ray jets

In the survey of radio jets selected to look for extended

X-ray emission with CHANDRA (Sambruna et al. 2002,2004)

two known gamma-ray blazars satisfied the survey criteria

and extended X-ray emission was found.

One gamma-ray blazar in the survey of Marshall et al 2004

Three other gamma-ray blazars were later observed with

Chandra and showed extended X-ray emission.

Tavecchio et al. 2005, Tavecchio et al. in preparation

Xi’an 16-21 October 2006 Laura Maraschi INAF – Osservatorio Astronomico di Brera


J ets at differe nt scales and the connection with accretion

Subpc and kpc-scale comparison for same jet

1641+399 (z=0.59)

B=3G; R=4x1016cm; K=2.8x103cm-3

G=10-5

B=1.7x10-5G; R=2x1022cm; K=4x10-6

G=8-4

Xi’an 16-21 October 2006 Laura Maraschi INAF – Osservatorio Astronomico di Brera


J ets at differe nt scales and the connection with accretion

Subpc and kpc-scale comparison

1510-089 (z=0.36)

B=1.4G; R=3x1016cm; K=7x102cm-3

G=20-10

B=6x10-6G; R=1.3x1022cm; K=5x10-6

G=16-9

Xi’an 16-21 October 2006 Laura Maraschi INAF – Osservatorio Astronomico di Brera


J ets at differe nt scales and the connection with accretion

Extended jets from

gamma-ray blazars

0954

1229

2251

Xi’an 16-21 October 2006 Laura Maraschi INAF – Osservatorio Astronomico di Brera


J ets at differe nt scales and the connection with accretion

Small scale jet + acc. disk

Large scale jet

Xi’an 16-21 October 2006 Laura Maraschi INAF – Osservatorio Astronomico di Brera


J ets at differe nt scales and the connection with accretion

Xi’an 16-21 October 2006 Laura Maraschi INAF – Osservatorio Astronomico di Brera


J ets at differe nt scales and the connection with accretion

Xi’an 16-21 October 2006 Laura Maraschi INAF – Osservatorio Astronomico di Brera


J ets at differe nt scales and the connection with accretion

Xi’an 16-21 October 2006 Laura Maraschi INAF – Osservatorio Astronomico di Brera


J ets at differe nt scales and the connection with accretion

Comparison of Lorentz factors and Powers estimated for the same jets at small (subpc) and large (100 kpc) scales

Tavecchio et al. 2006 subm.

Xi’an 16-21 October 2006 Laura Maraschi INAF – Osservatorio Astronomico di Brera


From subpc to kpc scale

From subpc to kpc scale

  • The bulk Lorenz factor of the jet appears consistent from subpc to 100 kpc scales but decreases close to the hot spots (some hot spots are weakly relativistic)

  • The transported power at the two scales is similar (negligible dissipation until the “end”)

  • The pressure (magnetic field) at the two scales is consistent with a relation pµA-1 (B µ r-1)

free expansion (high power jets)

Xi’an 16-21 October 2006 Laura Maraschi INAF – Osservatorio Astronomico di Brera


J ets at differe nt scales and the connection with accretion

The Jet - DiskConnection

The deep CHANDRA exposures of the cores of 1136 –135

and 1150 +497 plus an XMM observation of 0723+679

allow to disentangle the accretion disk contribution

from the jet contribution in the X ray spectra which show

weak Fe emission

(see Grandi and Palumbo 2004 for 3C 273)

We can add new data on the gamma-ray blazars and on

J0754 recently discovered with SWIFT

Sambruna et al. 2006 subm. Tavecchio et al 2006 in prep

Xi’an 16-21 October 2006 Laura Maraschi INAF – Osservatorio Astronomico di Brera


J ets at differe nt scales and the connection with accretion

Connecting accretion and jet power:

the concept

Th

Accretion power

BZ or BP

Jet power

e

Blazar SEDs (MT02: power estimated with parameters derived from radiative models)

Energy in lobes (RS91)

VLBI jets (CPG )

Ldisk

blue bump or emission lines

Xi’an 16-21 October 2006 Laura Maraschi INAF – Osservatorio Astronomico di Brera


Jet synchrotron and inverse compton components

Jet :Synchrotronand InverseComptoncomponents

Blazar cores of

resolved X-ray

jets: disentangling

disk and jet

Accretion disk:

Blue Bump and X-ray p.l.

Xi’an 16-21 October 2006 Laura Maraschi INAF – Osservatorio Astronomico di Brera


J ets at differe nt scales and the connection with accretion

Jet Power

vs.

Jet Luminosity

The radiative

efficiency of

jets in the

inner (or blazar)

region spans

two orders of

magnitude and

is rather high

Without protons

jets would not

survive the inner

region

Xi’an 16-21 October 2006 Laura Maraschi INAF – Osservatorio Astronomico di Brera


J ets at differe nt scales and the connection with accretion

Jet power vs. accretion power

At high P

Pjet = Paccdisk

At low P

Pjet > LdisK

If Pjet ~ Pdisk

e < 0.01

Maraschi & Tavecchio, 2003

Sambruna et al.2006,

Xi’an 16-21 October 2006 Laura Maraschi INAF – Osservatorio Astronomico di Brera


J ets at differe nt scales and the connection with accretion

Conclusions

The radiative modelsyield a very consistent

picture of physical properties and

propagation for powerful jets.

The near equality of jet power and accretion

power is remarkable.

We derive this result for aligned jets, but in

a unified scheme it should hold for all

powerful radio sources.

The radio-loud radio-quiet diversity still waits

to be understood.

Xi’an 16-21 October 2006 Laura Maraschi INAF – Osservatorio Astronomico di Brera


J ets at differe nt scales and the connection with accretion

Xi’an 16-21 October 2006 Laura Maraschi INAF – Osservatorio Astronomico di Brera


J ets at differe nt scales and the connection with accretion

1136-135

A deep exposure with ChandraHST and VLA

After knot B the X-ray emission fades while the radio brightens

Xi’an 16-21 October 2006 Laura Maraschi INAF – Osservatorio Astronomico di Brera


J ets at differe nt scales and the connection with accretion

SEDs change from

Syncro to IC-like

Xi’an 16-21 October 2006 Laura Maraschi INAF – Osservatorio Astronomico di Brera


J ets at differe nt scales and the connection with accretion

Xi’an 16-21 October 2006 Laura Maraschi INAF – Osservatorio Astronomico di Brera


J ets at differe nt scales and the connection with accretion

1150+497

A deep exposure with Chandra and HST

Xi’an 16-21 October 2006 Laura Maraschi INAF – Osservatorio Astronomico di Brera


J ets at differe nt scales and the connection with accretion

Evolution of paramaters derived from “standard” modeling of the knots SED

Using the G profile

and applying the

adiabatic deceleration

by Georganopoulos and

Kazanas 2004 the

evolutionof B and K

can be computed

(dashed lines)

Xi’an 16-21 October 2006 Laura Maraschi INAF – Osservatorio Astronomico di Brera


J ets at differe nt scales and the connection with accretion

Deceleration from entrainment

G r b c A = Go ro bo c Ao + ∫rvent dS

(Gwb2 c2 + Dp)A = const

w=r c2 +4p

G2wb c A = G2owobo c Ao + ∫ r c2 vent dS

Bicknell 1994


J ets at differe nt scales and the connection with accretion

Solution of the conservation equations with entrainment

The amount of

entrained matter

necessary to explain

decelerationis 10%

of the transported

mass

Xi’an 16-21 October 2006 Laura Maraschi INAF – Osservatorio Astronomico di Brera


J ets at differe nt scales and the connection with accretion

About superunification

A simple scaling of the results (same external conditions

same Gamma-bulk) shows that the deceleration length

depends on the jet mass flux divided by the cross

section radius, presumably proportional to the BH mass.

Therefore the same quantity, Mdot/M determines the

Sequence of Blazar SEDs, the radiative properties of the

associated disks and the major morphological difference

(deceleration scale) of FR I and FR II jets.

We believe these are strong arguments to propose

Mdot/M as a fundamental parameter in unified schemes

for radiosources.

We propose that the second fundamental parameter

characterizing radio loudness is the black hole spin.

Xi’an 16-21 October 2006 Laura Maraschi INAF – Osservatorio Astronomico di Brera


J ets at differe nt scales and the connection with accretion

j

Weak or

no jet

Powerful jet

FSRQ

Optically

thick disc

m

FR II

BL Lac

FR I

Optically thin

hot flow

The fundamental AGN plane

Xi’an 16-21 October 2006 Laura Maraschi INAF – Osservatorio Astronomico di Brera


J ets at differe nt scales and the connection with accretion

Constraints on EC/CMB and SSC models (for 0637-052)

Tavecchio et al. 2000

Xi’an 16-21 October 2006 Laura Maraschi INAF – Osservatorio Astronomico di Brera


From subpc to kpc scale1

From subpc to kpc scale

Th

Xi’an 16-21 October 2006 Laura Maraschi INAF – Osservatorio Astronomico di Brera


J ets at differe nt scales and the connection with accretion

Tavecchio et al. 2006 in prep

Xi’an 16-21 October 2006 Laura Maraschi INAF – Osservatorio Astronomico di Brera


J ets at differe nt scales and the connection with accretion

knots

hot spots

upper limits

Xi’an 16-21 October 2006 Laura Maraschi INAF – Osservatorio Astronomico di Brera


J ets at differe nt scales and the connection with accretion

The radio to X-ray ratio increases along the jet

Xi’an 16-21 October 2006 Laura Maraschi INAF – Osservatorio Astronomico di Brera


J ets at differe nt scales and the connection with accretion

Survey results

Mostdetected knots emit X-rays via IC-CMB

The synchrotron knots are those closest to the nucleus

The X-ray to radio flux ratio tends to decrease along the jet

See also survey of Marshall et al. 2005

In two cases large and small scale of the same jet can be compared

Tavecchio et al. 2004

Xi’an 16-21 October 2006 Laura Maraschi INAF – Osservatorio Astronomico di Brera


The blazar sequence is understood as a sequence in

The blazar sequence is understood as a sequence in

m

Powerful jets go with bright disks (high m)

Optical signatures of disks in less powerful jets may be absent due to radiative inefficiency (ADAF) (low m)

This is supported by direct determination of the parameters

Maraschi 2001; Boettcher & Dermer 2002; Cavaliere & D’ Elia 2002;

Maraschi & Tavecchio 2003;

Xi’an 16-21 October 2006 Laura Maraschi INAF – Osservatorio Astronomico di Brera


J ets at differe nt scales and the connection with accretion

Modeling the SED sequence:

Ghisellini et al. 1998

Magnetic field, particle densities and radiation densities

decrease along the sequence

Beaming factor constant

Kinetic power can be estimated and decreases along the

sequence

Xi’an 16-21 October 2006 Laura Maraschi INAF – Osservatorio Astronomico di Brera


J ets at differe nt scales and the connection with accretion

Intensity profiles along the jet

Xi’an 16-21 October 2006 Laura Maraschi INAF – Osservatorio Astronomico di Brera


J ets at differe nt scales and the connection with accretion

A Chandra-HST survey of jets

Sambruna et al. 2002

Sambruna et al. 2004

17 “radio selected” jets

All (except 1) powerful FR II

at large distances

10 new X-ray jets (59%)

10 optical jets

9 X-ray and optical

Xi’an 16-21 October 2006 Laura Maraschi INAF – Osservatorio Astronomico di Brera


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