Integration of digital dental casts in 3 dimensional facial photographs
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Integration of digital dental casts in 3-dimensional facial photographs. Frits A. Rangel, Thomas J. J. Maal , Stefaan J. Bergé , Olivier J. C. van Vlijmen , Joanneke M. Plooij , Filip Schutyser , and Anne Marie Kuijpers-Jagtmand.

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Integration of digital dental casts in 3-dimensional facial photographs

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Integration of digital dental casts in 3 dimensional facial photographs

Integration of digital dental casts in3-dimensional facial photographs

Frits A. Rangel, Thomas J. J. Maal, Stefaan J. Bergé, Olivier J. C. van Vlijmen, Joanneke M. Plooij, FilipSchutyser, and Anne Marie Kuijpers-Jagtmand

From the 3D Facial Imaging Research Group, Nijmegen and Bruges,

and Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Centre, Nijmegen, The Netherlands.

American Journal of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics

volume134page 820-826, 2008

2013/ 12/10 NAT LILAKITRUNGRUEANG


Introduction

Introduction

Three-dimensional (3D) representation of the dentition in face

  • 1915, Van Loon

    • Placed plaster models of the dentition and the face into the anatomically correct positions for the patient.

    • Difficult and time-consuming process.

  • 1980s, 3D images of the maxillofacial region started to develop

    • Laser scanning

    • computed-tomography scanning (and stereolithography)

    • Moiré topography

    • stereophotogrammetry


Introduction1

Introduction

  • At the moment , Stereophotogrammetry; most popular

    • 3dMDface (3dMD LLC, Atlanta, Ga)

    • di3D (Dimensional Imaging, Glasgow, Scotland, United King

3D photographs in daily practice became possible

Limitation ; captures only 1 part of the triad bone, soft tissues, and dentition


Introduction2

Introduction

  • Recently, The search for a substitute for the original cephalogram

  • Assessment of the relationship between bone and soft tissue

    • Zhang et al

      • compared measurements on 2-dimensional facial photographs with cephalometric measurements.

    • Nagasaki et al

      • developed a nonradiographiccephalometricsystem-directly measure on patient’s face

        • no radiation exposure


Nonradiographic cephalometric system

Nonradiographiccephalometric system

Digitizing process

all landmarks digitized directly on the patient’s face

software program

3D coordinate system

No clinically significant differences between

measurements on this 3D model and lateral headfilms


Integration of digital dental casts in 3 dimensional facial photographs

3D digital data sets

regained interest

digital dental models(20th century)

Curry et al

3D facial photographs, digital dental casts,

and anteroposterior and lateral headfilms.

Add dentition to the 3D photograph

(anatomically correct position)?

lateral headfilms


The purpose of study

The purpose of study

to present a possibility study of the integration

of a digital dental cast into a 3D facial picture

to visualize the anatomic position of the dentition in the face in 3 dimensions.


Material and methods

Material and methods

Required data for the integration

  • a digital dental cast

  • a digital 3D facial photograph of the patient

    with the teeth visible

  • a digital 3D facial photograph of the patient

    with the teeth in occlusion, with the soft tissues as

    relaxed as possible.


Material and methods1

Material and methods

Required data for the integration

  • a digital dental cast

    • impressions

    • wax bite to register relationship between arches


Material and methods2

Material and methods

Required data for the integration

  • a digital dental cast

Orthoproof (Nieuwegein, The Netherlands)

The tube voltage at 160 kV,

The voxel resolution was 0.002 in.

Scanner makes 780 slices in a rotation of 360°

about 28 s.

flash computed tomography scanner

Digital dental casts with the wax bite

Remove wax bite


Integration of digital dental casts in 3 dimensional facial photographs

sent to the orthodontist


Integration of digital dental casts in 3 dimensional facial photographs

  • 3D stereophotogrammetrical camera setup

software program modular system

(version 1.0, 3dMDface System)

Required data for the integration

  • 3D pictures

Computer

(Pentium 4 CPU, 3.2 GHz

processor speed, 512 Mb RAM, NVIDIA GeForcefx 5500 128 Mb graphics card)

2 pods, each containing

1full color and 2 black-and-white cameras.

Captured by light photography, without radiation.

1.5 ms, (limits the risk of artifacts).

The 6 simultaneous photographs are reconstructed into a 3D stereophotogrammetrical picture (.tsb-file).


Integration of digital dental casts in 3 dimensional facial photographs

the .tsb-file needed to be converted into an .obj-file,

imported to the Maxilim software program

(version 2.0.3, Medicim NV, Mechelen, Belgium).

For matching the digital dental casts to the digital 3D picture:

anterior teeth


To integrate the 3 models

To integrate the 3 models

  • Digital dental cast is matched to digital 3D picture of the patient’s face with cheek retracters.

    • Imported into the Maxilim software program (matching tool)


The registration process

The registration process

Steps.

1. Initial positioning of the surfaces.

2. Selecting corresponding regions.

3. Registration of the digital dental cast with the

digital 3D picture.

4. Computation of the distance between the digital

dental cast and the digital 3D picture.


The registration process1

The registration process

Steps.

1. Initial positioning of the surfaces.


The registration process2

The registration process

Steps.

1. Initial positioning of the surfaces.


The registration process3

The registration process

Steps.

2. Selecting corresponding regions.

region for surface matching (yellow), indicated on the digital dental cast

region for surface matching (yellow), indicated on the 3D facial picture with cheek retractors


The registration process4

The registration process

Steps.

3. Registration of the digital dental cast with the

digital 3D picture.


The registration process5

The registration process

Steps.

4. Computation of the distance between the digital

dental cast and the digital 3D picture.


To integrate the 3 models1

To integrate the 3 models

  • With the digital dental cast positioned into the face

    project a digital 3D picture of the

    patient with the teeth in occlusion

    on the digital 3D picture of the

    patient with cheek retractors.


Results

Results

  • 15 minutes for an experienced person.

  • Good matching is possible for the 3 models.

  • Mathematical environment Matlab (R2006a, Mathworks, Natick, Mass) can calculate the average distance of the

    2 surfaces for the matched areas;

    • the average distance for the anterior teeth was 0.35 mm

    • matching the 2 digital 3D pictures, the average distance was 0.29 mm (SD, 0.21 mm).


Discussion

Discussion

  • The use of stereophotogrammetry has proven to be useful in facial and human body 3D imaging.

  • Some parts of the face (eg, the teeth), the imaging is not good enough.

  • After matching the anterior teeth>great differences in the distance kit

    • Resolution of the digital 3D pictures and the shininess of the teeth and the gingiva.


Digital wire frame

Digital wire frame


Discussion1

Discussion

  • The black parts in the distance kit;

    difference between the 2 surfaces is more than 2 mm.


Discussion2

Discussion

  • When 2 surfaces were matched

    • mean distance and the standard deviation between the 2 surfaces were calculated.

  • Measurement error of camera/software program.

    • 0.35 mm between digital 3D picture with cheek retractors and the digital dental cast

      probably not be clinically relevant.

  • The inclusion of discrete surfaces for matching does not contribute to a better matching result.


Conlusions

Conlusions

-It is technically possible to make a 3D

data set of a patient’s face, with the dentition positioned in the anatomically correct position.


Conlusions1

Conlusions

-Future research needs to establish the value of this 3D

fused data set for orthodontic diagnosis and treatment planning.

-When this proves to be useful>matching procedure by the software>orthodontist can start analyzing the data set immediately.


Integration of digital dental casts in 3 dimensional facial photographs

Thank you for

your attention


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