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Pickering Creek Watershed Project. Stream Dream Team Pd.7 Matt H. Dan S. Phil H. Keerthana K. Water Sheds – K.K.

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Pickering Creek Watershed Project

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Pickering Creek Watershed Project

Stream Dream Team Pd.7

Matt H. Dan S. Phil H. Keerthana K.

Water Sheds – K.K.

• Watershed: A watershed is the area of land where all of the water that is under it or drains off of it goes into the same place. There are many watersheds. They vary in size and shape. They can go from being a town to half a county.

• www.conservationinformation.org

Pickering Watershed – K.K.

• Is a watershed located in the southeastern region of Pennsylvania.

Ecosystem – K.K.

• An ecosystem is an area where all plants, animals, and living things are living together and functioning together. Biomes are based off of plant structures in an area. In our biome, or the Southeastern Biome, we have very forest like areas because we are in the temperate deciduous forest biome.

Stream Flow Volume Calculation: P.H.

• Average Velocity=avg. time/10

=2.6 ft/second

• Average Depth= .48 ft.

• Width of stream at transect line= 30 ft.

• Correction factor (water in sediment)=0.8

• 2.6 x 0.48 x 30 x 0.8= 29.95ft^3/second.

Stream flow volume Calculation: cont. P.H.

• The stream flow volume effects the oxygen content of the water because the percentage of oxygen in the air is far greater than that of the oxygen in the water(40% rather than less than 1%). If the stream is moving faster and has more ripples, then the oxygen in the air mixes into the water making it more able to support life. The shape of the bottom is also effected. If a stream moves slowly it will not carve much out of the land that it is in, and stay in a basic round shape, not getting any wider. if the stream moves very quickly, however, it will cut into the side making the stream more shallow and potentially causing flooding.

Water Chemistry P.H.

The overall analysis of the river is Borderline. The best readings were the pH and Nitrate. The pH is almost neutral and Nitrate is under the level that indicates enrichment, too much of a contaminant. The dissolved oxygen is slightly over the medium range and the Phosphate is just on the line between enrichment and health. The hardness, or calcium content, is quite high at 88 when the mid range is 11-50 parts per million.

The Water Cycle M.H.

2. Condenses into clouds

3. Falls as rain

1. Water evaporates

4. Seeps into ground or runs off

5. Returns to ocean

6 Most Common Benthic Invertebrates in Pickering Creek M.H.

• Caddisfly Larva- Scavengers, eat small bits of plants, and animals. Mild-Moderate tolerance of pollution (1.6)

• Mayfly Larva- Herbivores, eat living or dead algae. Somewhat tolerant of pollution (1.5)

• Stonefly Larva- Scavengers, eat living and dead plants and animals. Very Intolerant of Pollution (0.5)

• Water Pennies- Herbivores, Eat Algae. Moderately tolerant of pollution (2.2)

• Cranefly- Herbivores, eat roots and grass seedlings. Moderately tolerant of pollution (2.2)

• Blackfly Larva- Omnivores, feed on protozoa and crustaceans, Algae. Mild-Moderate tolerance of pollution (1.7)

Biotic Index M.H.

• Zone One

• 101 Specimens

• Average tolerance (1.57)

• Zone Two

• 117 Specimens

• Average tolerance (1.67)

• Total

• 218 Specimens

• Tolerance value (1.62)

• These numbers show that our section of the stream is excellent condition and mostly unpolluted

Ways That We Can Improve Our Stream Ecosystem D.S.

• Use organic fertilizers

• Don’t dump gas, oil, or other hazardous materials into the ground

• Throw trash into appropriate bins

• Limit building in a 50 foot area from the banks

How we Negatively Affect our Stream Ecosystem D.S.

• Flow sewage into Stream

• Litter

• Dump Chemicals

• Factory discharges

• Building roads and houses close to banks

• Use chemical Fertilizers