DADA. Dada or Dadaism is a cultural movement that began in Zurich, Switzerland during World War I and peaked from 1916 to 1922.
Dada or Dadaism is a cultural movement that began in Zurich, Switzerland during World War I and peaked from 1916 to 1922.
Literally, the word dada means several things in several languages: "hobbyhorse" in French, “good-bye” or “get off my back” in German
and "yes yes” in Slavic.
Some authorities say that the name Dada is a nonsensical word chosen at random from a dictionary.
Dada was, officially, not a movement, its artists not artists and its art not art.
Dada was a literary and artistic attitude born in Europe at a time when the shocking tragedies of World War I were happening in their own lives.
These citizens were furious that the advanced European society would allow the war to have happened.
They were so angry, in fact, that they undertook the time-honored tradition of protesting.
The Machine Age is a term associated mostly with the early 20th century.
The Machine Age and WWI
greatly affected the world of art.
Banding together in a loosely-knit group, these writers and artists used any public forum they could find to (metaphorically) spit on nationalism, rationalism, materialism and any other -ism which they felt had contributed to a senseless war.
photo montage by Raoul Hausmann
leading member was Marcel Duchamp,
who in 1913
created his first
the "Bicycle Wheel," consisting of a wheel mounted on the seat
of a stool.
Dada artists typically produced art objects in
different forms produced by
They often used collage and assemblage of
everyday mechanical objects.
“Fountain” (1917) by Frenchman Marcel Duchamp; photograph by Alfred Stieglitz.
Duchamp took this postcard of “the Mona Lisa” and painted a mustache on it.
As if the mustache and beard weren't enough of a poke at this most famous of paintings, the letters he penciled — L.H.O.O.Q.— at the bottom are meaningless in English, but when read aloud in French means: "She has a hot“behind”."
(he thought, why should an artists want to contribute time and effort to a society in the face of such brutality)
“Mechanical Head “,1919
*mannequin head *aluminum cup
*brass & cardboard labels *part of a telescope
*a watch gear-wheel
*a printing roller,…
Raoul Hausmann (Austrian)
Hausmann used new techniques in many mediums, shocking juxtapositions, collages, and
Also, various abstract art styles developed during the 20th century, as the realm of the real in art was taken over by photography.
“Two Ambiguous Figures”, 1920
(ambiguous - having a double meaning)
Max Ernst Germany
Man Ray: “Violin”
In the U.S. the movement was centered in New York at famous photographer, Alfred Stieglitz's gallery, “291”.
were created by
American artist/photographer, Man Ray and French artist, Francis Picabia.
Portrait of Francis Picabia by Man Ray
“Love Parade” 1917
“Machine Turn Quickly”
Man Ray, American
(working in France)
Kurt Schwitters, German
“Das Undbild”, 1919 ("The And-Picture")
George Grosz, also a German Expressionist
Dada had only one rule:
Never follow any known rules.
when it was in danger
of becoming "acceptable".
into the more popular
style of SURREALISM
Oedipus Rex, 1922
To be continued ...
Collage can go beyond the
A three-dimensional collage is called an assemblage.
in the round
Louise Nevelson is known for her Abstract Expressionist “crates” grouped together to form a new creation.
She used found objects or everyday discarded things in her “assemblages”, one of which was three stories high.
"When you put together things that other people have thrown out, you’re really bringing them to life – a spiritual life that surpasses the life for which they were originally created."
Nevelson often worked in shallow-relief, and often monochromatically.Nevelson's work is not easily allied with any one movement, though it has been variously linked to Cubism, Dada, and Abstract Expressionism.