Egypt. Questions and Answers. Review…Recall…Reflect. (page 63). 1. List & describe three ways that the environment shaped Egyptian culture and society. The Nile, Western and Eastern Deserts, and the Mediterranean Sea were environmental factors which shaped Egypt.
Questions and Answers
The Nile, Western and Eastern Deserts, and the Mediterranean Sea were environmental factors which shaped Egypt.
The Nile provided transportation, irrigation, and communication networks.
The desert protected Egypt from invasion and allowed it to remain isolated.
The Mediterranean Sea provided the transportation route to Egypt’s trading partners.
The double crown of Egypt signifies the unification of Upper and Lower Egypt in 3100 BCE, under the reign of King Menes.
Egypt, because of its isolation and commonalities, was likely able to unify sooner than Mesopotamia.
The political hierarchy of Egypt revolved around the king, or Pharaoh, who was believed to be the earthly embodiment of the god Horus.
This allowed the king to rule with a sense of divine right.
Egyptian law revolved around the concept of divine inspiration.
In the Egyptian economy, the Pharaoh owned all the land of Egypt, the people, and their possessions.
The Mummification Ritual
The Egyptians believed in an afterlife.
The essence of the body, Ka, would return to the preserved body, and it was therefore essential that the body remain as life-like as possible.
The process of mummification represents a time-honoured need to preserve the body, which ensured the continuation of the spirit or soul in the afterworld.
The concept of mummification has always interested people. It has an aspect of the macabre, and the process holds a fascination for all.
2. The mummy has provided much inspiration for books, movies, stories and exhibits. Pick one medium and imagine you have to pitch the concept to a publisher, producer, or gallery. Explain why you think this would interest the public.
1. With the concept of a god-king, the importance of having a strong Pharaph was crucial to Egypt’s stability. Respond to this statement using the Pharaohs of the New Kingdom to support your answer.
Hatshepsut, Tuthmosis III, Akhenaton, Tutankhamen, Ramses II were all pharaohs of the New Kingdom considered strong.
Factors that led to their success: army, expanding trade routes, building of monuments, and internal peace.
2. Outline the funeral process for a wealthy ancient Egyptian from the time of death, through the mummification process, to the final laying to rest in the tomb.
Ma’at was the central premise of Egyptian stability.
It was the concept of order, truth, and justice, and it formed the overriding principle of harmony.
Egyptians believed that living in accordance of Ma’at would achieve harmony with the gods and assure a place in the afterworld.
The Pharaoh was believed to be an essential entity in the Ma’at. If his world remained harmonious, then so too would the peoples’ of Egypt.
Thus all laws and decisions were aimed at appeasing the harmony of Ma’at, and maintaining order, truth, and justice.