Social interaction social structure and groups
Download
1 / 26

Social Interaction, Social Structure, and Groups - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


  • 142 Views
  • Uploaded on

Social Interaction, Social Structure, and Groups. Chapter 5. Social Interaction and Reality. Reality shaped by perceptions, evaluations, and definitions Varies across cultures Ability to define social reality reflects group’s power

loader
I am the owner, or an agent authorized to act on behalf of the owner, of the copyrighted work described.
capcha
Download Presentation

PowerPoint Slideshow about ' Social Interaction, Social Structure, and Groups' - karen-levy


An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.


- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript

Social interaction and reality
Social Interaction and Reality

  • Reality shaped by perceptions, evaluations, and definitions

    • Varies across cultures

    • Ability to define social reality reflects group’s power

    • Social change involves redefining or reconstructing social reality


Social interaction
Social Interaction

  • The process by which people act and react in relation to others

  • Social construction of reality – the process by which people shape reality through social interaction

  • Thomas Theorem – Situations defined as real become real in their consequences


Status
Status

  • Status – a social position

    • Status set – consists of all the statuses a person holds at a given time

    • Ascribed status – a social position given to a person by society

    • Achieved status – a social position that someone assumes voluntarily and that reflects ability and effort


Status1
Status

  • Master status – a status that has special importance for social identity, often shaping a person’s entire life.



Roles
Roles

  • Behavior expected of someone who holds a particular status

  • Role conflict - conflict among roles corresponding to two or more different statuses

  • Role strain – incompatibility among roles corresponding to a single status


Understanding social structure
Understanding Social structure

  • Durkheim

  • Tonnies

  • Lenski


Durkheim s mechanical and organic solidarity
Durkheim’s Mechanical and Organic Solidarity

  • Division of Labor ([1893] 1933)

    • Mechanicalsolidarity: Collective consciousness that emphasizes group solidarity, implying all individuals perform the same tasks

    • Organicsolidarity: Collective consciousness resting on the need society’s members have for one another


T nnies gemeinschaft and gesellschaft
Tönnies Gemeinschaft and Gesellschaft

  • Gemeinschaft (guh-MINE-shoft): Small community in which people have similar backgrounds and life experiences

  • Gesellschaft (guh-ZELL-shoft): Large community in which people are strangers and feel little in common with other community residents


Lenski s sociocultural evolution approach
Lenski’s Sociocultural Evolution Approach

  • Human societies undergo process of change characterized by dominant pattern known as socioculturalevolution

    • Level of technology critical

      • Technology: “Cultural information about the ways in which the material resources of the environment may be used to satisfy human needs and desires” (Nolan and Lenski 2006:361)


Lenski s sociocultural evolution approach1
Lenski’s Sociocultural Evolution Approach

  • Preindustrial Societies

    • Hunting-and-gathering society: People rely on whatever foods and fibers are readily available

    • Horticultural societies: People plant seeds and crops

    • Agrarian societies: People are primarily engaged in production of food


Lenski s sociocultural evolution approach2
Lenski’s Sociocultural Evolution Approach

  • Industrialsocieties: societies that depend on mechanization to produce its goods and services

    • People depend on mechanization to produce goods and services

    • People rely on inventions and energy sources

    • People change function of family as a self-sufficient unit


Lenski s sociocultural evolution approach3
Lenski’s Sociocultural Evolution Approach

  • Postindustrial and Postmodern Societies

    • Postindustrialsociety: Economic system engaged primarily in processing and controlling information

    • Postmodernsociety: Technologically sophisticated society preoccupied with consumer goods and media images


Groups
Groups

Group: any number of people with similar norms, values, and expectations who interact on a regular basis

Primary group: small group with intimate, face-to-face association and cooperation

Secondary group: formal, impersonal groups with little social intimacy or mutual understanding



Groups1
Groups

In-groups and Out-Groups

In-groups: any groups or categories to which people feel they belong

Out-groups: any groups or categories to which people feel they do not belong

Conflict between in-groups and out-groups can turn violent on a personal as well as political level


Groups2
Groups

Reference group: any group thatindividuals use as standard for evaluating their own behavior


Formal organizations
Formal Organizations

  • Large, secondary groups that are organized to achieve goals efficiently


Types of formal organizations
Types of formal Organizations

  • Utilitarian - primary motive is income

  • Normative – not for income but to pursue some worthwhile goal

  • Coercive- involuntary


Bureaucracy
Bureaucracy

  • a form of organization based on explicit rules, with a clear, impersonal, and hierarchical authority structure


Characteristics of bureaucracy
Characteristics of Bureaucracy

  • Complex division of labor (specialization)

  • Hierarchy of authority

  • Explicit rules

  • Rewards on the basis of performance

  • Extensive written records


Corporation
Corporation

  • A group that, through the legal process of incorporation, has been given the status of a separate and real social entity

    • Limited liability


Group think
Group Think

  • Intense social pressure within a group for individuals to conform to group norms and abandon individual and critical thinking

  • People will compromise judgment to avoid being difficult

    • Solomon Asch’s experiment


Types of leadership
Types of Leadership

  • Instrumental Leadership – group leadership that emphasizes the completion of tasks

  • Expressive Leadership – group leadership that focuses on collective well-being


Organizational culture
Organizational Culture

  • Classical theory (scientific management) workers are motivated almost entirely by economic rewards

  • Human relations approach – emphasizes the role of people, communication, and participation within a bureaucracy


ad