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CLEAN AIR ISSUES The Philippine Experience. Dr. Nereus Acosta, Congressman House of Representatives Principal Author, 1999 Philippine Clean Air Act . OVERVIEW.

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clean air issues the philippine experience

CLEAN AIR ISSUESThe Philippine Experience

Dr. Nereus Acosta, Congressman

House of Representatives

Principal Author, 1999 Philippine Clean Air Act

overview
OVERVIEW
  • 12-year ‘gestation’ of Philippine Clean Air Act (filed in 1988 enacted 1999) – one of the most stringent clean air laws in Asia (Euro/EPA standards, complete phase-out of leaded gasoline, desulphurization of diesel, ban on direct incineration)
  • Underfunded (unfunded) Mandate; Environment Management Bureau no real capacity to implement law; ADB assistance (MMAQIF)
  • Metro Manila – 14 million people, 3.5 million vehicles (source of 75 percent of air pollution), one of the five most polluted mega-cities in the world, 200k plus two-stroke tricycles/motorcycles in secondary roads
  • Cultural/Political ‘hardware’’/ Widespread Poverty, Wealth Disparities/ Institutional Weaknesses hamper implementation – ‘Demo-Crazy’, traffic as metaphor
information
INFORMATION
  • SCIENTIFIC/ TECHNICAL DATA – STANDARDS, BENCHMARKING
  • BASELINE STUDIES, CASE STUDIES
  • SOCIAL AND ECONOMIC ANALYSES (demographic trends, health implications)
  • ENVIROMENTAL IMPACT ASSESSMENTS/COST-BENEFIT ANALYSIS
  • MONITORING, MODELING, SIMULATION
  • VERIFICATION
problems pitfalls promise prospects five i s
Problems/Pitfalls --- Promise/ProspectsFIVE “I’s”
  • INFORMATION
  • INFRASTRUCTURE
  • INSTITUTIONAL ARRANGEMENTS
  • INSTRUMENTS
  • IDEOLOGY

Need for INTEGRATED APPROACH

infrastructure
INFRASTRUCTURE
  • ROAD SYSTEMS – diversion, circumferential roads around metropolis, road maintenance (‘flyover/overpass complex’)
  • TRANSIT-ORIENTED DEVELOPMENT, RAPID BUS TRANSIT, INTELLIGENT TRANSPORT SYSTEMS, NMT, new technologies (minimal focus),
  • DECONGESTION PLANS -- TRAFFIC MANAGEMENT (MMDA limitations)
  • EMISSIONS TESTING, STATE-OF-THE-ART EQUIPMENT/TECHNOLOGY (only private Manila Observatory has such)
institutional frameworks
INSTITUTIONAL FRAMEWORKS
  • POLICY MEASURES – LAND USE, ENERGY USE, ECOSYSTEMS MANAGEMENT, ENVIRONMENTAL POLCIES
  • LINKAGES, COORDINATION OF AGENCIES: ENVIRONMENT, ENERGY, TRADE-INDUSTRY, TRANSPORTATION-COMMUNICATION – HEALTH, EDUCATION (schools, academe)
  • PRIVATE-PUBLIC PARTNERSHIPS (NGO, SECTORAL COORDINATION – ‘Bantay Usok’ – anti-smoke-belching run by NGO-media groups)
  • CAPABILITY/CAPACITY-BUILDING, FUNDING
  • ENFORCEMENT ISSUES, OVERSIGHT FUNCTIONS OF CONGRESS – ‘FEASIBILITY’
instruments
INSTRUMENTS
  • MARKET-BASED INTRUMENTALITIES – PRICING/TAXING, INCENTIVIZATION
  • COST-BENEFIT ANALYSIS/ COST-EFFECTIVE SOLUTIONS
  • INTERVENTIONS – CONGESTION-PRICING (?), REGULATORY-ECONOMIC TOOLS (e.g., ban on second-hand vehicle/buses importation, two-stroke engines phasing-out)
  • ´ECONOMICS OF ENVIRONMENTALISM´ poverty, equity vis-a-vis efficiency/growth equations (mass protests of tricycle/bus owners)
ideology
IDEOLOGY
  • ‘POLITICAL WILL’ – CONTINUITY QUESTION (administration to administration – short-term vs to long-term)
  • GOVERNANCE, CORRUPTION ISSUES (‘weak state’); ‘SOCIAL TRUST’ (are implementing rules, systems trusted?; rigged testing)
  • COMMITMENT TO CLEAN AIR/ ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AS OFFICIAL THRUST (not mentioned in ‘State of the Nation’ addresses)
  • WIDER ENVIRONMENTAL EDUCATION FOR PUBLIC, MEDIA OUTREACH
  • COURT SYSTEMS/JUDICIAL INVOLVEMENT – CIVIL SUITS, LEGAL RECOURSES, PUBLIC INVOLVEMENT IN ENVIRONMENTAL DECISIONS (double-edged: abused? too politicized?)
integrated approaches
INTEGRATED APPROACHES
  • SOUND ANALYSIS (context, constraints, challenges – relative impacts in different cultural, demographic, economic and political circumstances; understanding ‘sustainability’ in fuller environmental, economic and social terms)
  • COMPETENT LEADERSHIP
  • EFFECTIVE IMPLEMENTATION, INNOVATION, ADAPTATION
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