Clean air issues the philippine experience
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CLEAN AIR ISSUES The Philippine Experience. Dr. Nereus Acosta, Congressman House of Representatives Principal Author, 1999 Philippine Clean Air Act . OVERVIEW.

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CLEAN AIR ISSUES The Philippine Experience

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Clean air issues the philippine experience

CLEAN AIR ISSUESThe Philippine Experience

Dr. Nereus Acosta, Congressman

House of Representatives

Principal Author, 1999 Philippine Clean Air Act


Overview

OVERVIEW

  • 12-year ‘gestation’ of Philippine Clean Air Act (filed in 1988 enacted 1999) – one of the most stringent clean air laws in Asia (Euro/EPA standards, complete phase-out of leaded gasoline, desulphurization of diesel, ban on direct incineration)

  • Underfunded (unfunded) Mandate; Environment Management Bureau no real capacity to implement law; ADB assistance (MMAQIF)

  • Metro Manila – 14 million people, 3.5 million vehicles (source of 75 percent of air pollution), one of the five most polluted mega-cities in the world, 200k plus two-stroke tricycles/motorcycles in secondary roads

  • Cultural/Political ‘hardware’’/ Widespread Poverty, Wealth Disparities/ Institutional Weaknesses hamper implementation – ‘Demo-Crazy’, traffic as metaphor


Information

INFORMATION

  • SCIENTIFIC/ TECHNICAL DATA – STANDARDS, BENCHMARKING

  • BASELINE STUDIES, CASE STUDIES

  • SOCIAL AND ECONOMIC ANALYSES (demographic trends, health implications)

  • ENVIROMENTAL IMPACT ASSESSMENTS/COST-BENEFIT ANALYSIS

  • MONITORING, MODELING, SIMULATION

  • VERIFICATION


Problems pitfalls promise prospects five i s

Problems/Pitfalls --- Promise/ProspectsFIVE “I’s”

  • INFORMATION

  • INFRASTRUCTURE

  • INSTITUTIONAL ARRANGEMENTS

  • INSTRUMENTS

  • IDEOLOGY

    Need for INTEGRATED APPROACH


Infrastructure

INFRASTRUCTURE

  • ROAD SYSTEMS – diversion, circumferential roads around metropolis, road maintenance (‘flyover/overpass complex’)

  • TRANSIT-ORIENTED DEVELOPMENT, RAPID BUS TRANSIT, INTELLIGENT TRANSPORT SYSTEMS, NMT, new technologies (minimal focus),

  • DECONGESTION PLANS -- TRAFFIC MANAGEMENT (MMDA limitations)

  • EMISSIONS TESTING, STATE-OF-THE-ART EQUIPMENT/TECHNOLOGY (only private Manila Observatory has such)


Institutional frameworks

INSTITUTIONAL FRAMEWORKS

  • POLICY MEASURES – LAND USE, ENERGY USE, ECOSYSTEMS MANAGEMENT, ENVIRONMENTAL POLCIES

  • LINKAGES, COORDINATION OF AGENCIES: ENVIRONMENT, ENERGY, TRADE-INDUSTRY, TRANSPORTATION-COMMUNICATION – HEALTH, EDUCATION (schools, academe)

  • PRIVATE-PUBLIC PARTNERSHIPS (NGO, SECTORAL COORDINATION – ‘Bantay Usok’ – anti-smoke-belching run by NGO-media groups)

  • CAPABILITY/CAPACITY-BUILDING, FUNDING

  • ENFORCEMENT ISSUES, OVERSIGHT FUNCTIONS OF CONGRESS – ‘FEASIBILITY’


Instruments

INSTRUMENTS

  • MARKET-BASED INTRUMENTALITIES – PRICING/TAXING, INCENTIVIZATION

  • COST-BENEFIT ANALYSIS/ COST-EFFECTIVE SOLUTIONS

  • INTERVENTIONS – CONGESTION-PRICING (?), REGULATORY-ECONOMIC TOOLS (e.g., ban on second-hand vehicle/buses importation, two-stroke engines phasing-out)

  • ´ECONOMICS OF ENVIRONMENTALISM´ poverty, equity vis-a-vis efficiency/growth equations (mass protests of tricycle/bus owners)


Ideology

IDEOLOGY

  • ‘POLITICAL WILL’ – CONTINUITY QUESTION (administration to administration – short-term vs to long-term)

  • GOVERNANCE, CORRUPTION ISSUES (‘weak state’); ‘SOCIAL TRUST’ (are implementing rules, systems trusted?; rigged testing)

  • COMMITMENT TO CLEAN AIR/ ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AS OFFICIAL THRUST (not mentioned in ‘State of the Nation’ addresses)

  • WIDER ENVIRONMENTAL EDUCATION FOR PUBLIC, MEDIA OUTREACH

  • COURT SYSTEMS/JUDICIAL INVOLVEMENT – CIVIL SUITS, LEGAL RECOURSES, PUBLIC INVOLVEMENT IN ENVIRONMENTAL DECISIONS (double-edged: abused? too politicized?)


Integrated approaches

INTEGRATED APPROACHES

  • SOUND ANALYSIS (context, constraints, challenges – relative impacts in different cultural, demographic, economic and political circumstances; understanding ‘sustainability’ in fuller environmental, economic and social terms)

  • COMPETENT LEADERSHIP

  • EFFECTIVE IMPLEMENTATION, INNOVATION, ADAPTATION


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