The structure of a population depends on birth and death rates and also on migratory movements
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The structure of a population depends on birth and death rates and also on migratory movements. It shows population according to age and gender at a point in time. You use these diagrams to study one country or to compare countries .

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The structure of a population depends on birth and death rates and also on migratory movements

  • The structure of a population depends on birth and death rates and also on migratory movements.

  • It shows population according to age and gender at a point in time.

  • You use these diagrams to study one country or to compare countries.

  • You can detect the impact of events like wars, famines, migration or fertility and health programmes.


The structure of a population depends on birth and death rates and also on migratory movements

FEMALES

To the right

MALES

To the left

OLD DEPENDANTS

ECONOMICALLY

ACTIVE

YOUNG

DEPENDANTS

Population in

Five Year

Age bands

Figures are usually, but not always,

in percentages to make for easier

comparisons

between countries


The structure of a population depends on birth and death rates and also on migratory movements

Economically

More

Developed

Country

Economically

Less

Developed

Country

slope of pyramid indicates the death rate

width of the base is related to birth rate/fertility rate

proportions of men and women can suggest male or female migrations

height of graph can indicate life expectancy (ignore the very thin end

of the wedge as occurs on graph B as these people are a definite minority)

"kinks" indicate dramatic reductions in birth rate or increases in death rate in the past

area of graph indicates total population - compare areas of

different population age groups or different sex on one graph

The overall shape of the population pyramid can indicate whether it is an

Economically More Developed Country or Economically Less Developed Country


The structure of a population depends on birth and death rates and also on migratory movements

Read the book CORE HIGHER GEOGRAPHY, pages 200, 201 and 202.

Make sure you understand what the captions for diagrams A,B and C are explaining.

Define- in sentences- the terms in bold print on the last page, making sure that you quote the formula for the last one.

You should be comfortable discussing more than one use of such diagrams!


The structure of a population depends on birth and death rates and also on migratory movements

You may be asked to discuss the problems highlighted by the trends seen in a pyramid.

Read the CORE book again, page 202, 203. Read the bullet points.

There are 7 questions on the next

slides for each bullet point.

Answer them in one (or two)

sentences only.


The structure of a population depends on birth and death rates and also on migratory movements

MEDC’s

1. With the increase of old dependents, what FOUR categories will an MEDC government need to spend increasing amounts of money on?

2. As the numbers of older people increase, from what group will governments reduce funding ?

3. With a fall in the number of employed, what FOUR ways can a government increase the number of workers?

4. How can governments ease the shortage of economically active using non-UK resources?


The structure of a population depends on birth and death rates and also on migratory movements

Answers

MEDC’s

1. An MEDC government will need to spend more money on pensions, health care, housing and public transport.

2. Governments will reduce funding to education and children’s health care.

3. The FOUR ways can a government increase the number of workers include retirement delayed, get unemployed back to work, getting women to do all types of work and re-training.

4. Governments ease the shortage of economically active using non-UK resources by encouraging immigration.


The structure of a population depends on birth and death rates and also on migratory movements

LEDC’s

5. In what areas will an LEDC government need to spend increasing amounts of money on with the increase of young dependents? (Why is this difficult?)

6. As the numbers of young people rise through the age-ranges, why will the population explosion get worse? What problems will need to be tackled by their already-burdened governments?

7. Once these youngsters reach old age, explain how the problem of supporting them will be worse for their governments than for MEDC ones.


The structure of a population depends on birth and death rates and also on migratory movements

Answers

LEDC’s

5. LEDC governments need to spend increasing amounts of money on education and healthcare.

6. The population explosion will get worse as the ‘children’ will have their own children by then. They will need the services not being met for their parents now. They need to tackle family planning.

7. Supporting them will be worse for their governments as there will be little money and few services yet even more people to cater for.


The structure of a population depends on birth and death rates and also on migratory movements

Using Core Higher Geography page 225, complete question 3.


The structure of a population depends on birth and death rates and also on migratory movements

Stage 1

Stage 2

Stage 3

Stage 4

IMPLICATIONS

IMPLICATIONS

IMPLICATIONS

IMPLICATIONS

Population continues

to grow but at slower

rate. Low C Death Rate.

Dramatically declining

Crude Birth Rate.

EXAMPLES

Both birth rates and

death rates are

high, so population

growth rates are

slow but population

is usually restored

due to high birth

rate. Short life

expectancy

EXAMPLES

Population starts

to grow at an

exponential rate due to fall in Crude Death Rate. More living into middle age.

Life expectancy rises

Infant mortality rate falls.

EXAMPLES

Low Crude Birth Rate

and Crude Death Rate

Higher dependency ratio

and longer life expectancy

Crude Death Rate does

Rise slightly because of

The ageing population

EXAMPLES

Scotland today.

Japan, USA

Scotland before 1760

New Guinea

Remote parts of

Amazonia

Scotland 1870 -1950

Algeria, Tunisia

Morocco

Scotland 1760 - 1830

Republic of Congo


The structure of a population depends on birth and death rates and also on migratory movements

Referring to a country or countries which you have studied, describe and account for the changes in population from the beginning of stage 2 to the end of stage 3.

8 marks

Take a copy of the WIDER WORLD page 21, question 7 part bii.


The structure of a population depends on birth and death rates and also on migratory movements

The Three Scotlands

• Rural Scotland, areas with histories of rural

depression and population decline that are now, once

their age and sex structures are taken into account,

showing positive natural increase with above average

fertility and low mortality;

• Lothian and Aberdeen and their eastern Scottish

hinterlands, cities now characterised by low mortality,

high in migration, and very low fertility, helped by the

high proportion of un-partnered adults, high housing

costs, and higher than average numbers of women not

only in employment but ‘employment focused’ (indicated

by working over 37 hours per week);

• Greater Glasgow, which continues to suffer from very

high levels of mortality, the highest in Scotland, Britain

and much of Europe and high out migration, which

combine with a low birth rate and low in migration to

produce a situation of significant population decline.


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