Organic Chemistry. Nomenclature: Alkanes. Alkanes. Hydrocarbon chains where all the bonds between carbons are SINGLE bonds Name uses the ending – ane Examples: Meth ane , Prop ane , But ane , Oct ane , 2-methylpent ane. Summary: IUPAC Rules for Alkane Nomenclature.
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1. Find and name the longest continuous carbon chain. This is called the parent chain. (Examples: methane, propane, etc.)
2. Number the chain consecutively, starting at the end nearest an attached group (substituent).
3. Identify and name groups attached to this chain. (Examples: methyl-, bromo-, etc.)
4. Designate the location of each substituent group with the number of the carbon parent chain on which the group is attached. Place a dash between numbers and letters. (Example: 3-chloropentane)
5. Assemble the name, listing groups in alphabetical order. The prefixes di, tri, tetra etc., used to designate several groups of the same kind, are not considered when alphabetizing. Place a comma between multiple numbers. (Example: 2,3-dichloropropane)
Methyl is on carbon #2 of the parent chain
Methyl is on carbon #4 of the parent chain
1 2 3 4 5
GREEN is the right way for this one!
5 4 3 2 1
6 2 1
5 4 3
Groups on 2 and 5
Groups on 4, 6, and 7
Groups on 2, 3, and 5
Groups on 3 and 6
1 2 3 4 5
4-bromo-2-chloropentane or 2-bromo-4-chloropentane ?
one other carbon
two other carbons
three other carbons
Example: Name the following compounds:
Example: Write the condensed structure for the following compounds:
Nomenclature: Cyclic Alkanes
Cycloalkanes: An alkane that contains a ring of carbon atoms. Ring sizes from 3 carbons to 30 or higher are known.
Cycloalkanes are represented by polygons. A triangle represents cyclopropane, a square represents cyclobutane, a pentagon represents cyclopentane, and so on.