Migration trends in lithuania issues of monitoring and migrant integration
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Migration trends in Lithuania: issues of monitoring and migrant integration. Karolis Žibas Centre of Ethnic Studies Institute for Social Research (Vilnius, Lithuania) www.ces.lt 2008 04 24. Migration trends in Lithuania: issues of monitoring and migrant integration

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Migration trends in lithuania issues of monitoring and migrant integration

Migration trends in Lithuania: issues of monitoring and migrant integration

Karolis Žibas

Centre of Ethnic Studies

Institute for Social Research (Vilnius, Lithuania)

www.ces.lt

2008 04 24


Migration trends in lithuania issues of monitoring and migrant integration

Migration trends in Lithuania:

issues of monitoring and migrant integration

I. Migration trends: statistics, tendencies and sectoral analysis of labour immigration;

II. Social actors and process of migration policy formation;

III. Migrant integration: overview and comparison of integration measures of labour migrants and refugees.


Migration trends in lithuania issues of monitoring and migrant integration

I. MIGRATION TRENDS: STATISTICS, TENDENCIES AND SECTORAL ANALYSIS

(Source: Migration Department under the Ministry of the Interior of the Republic of Lithuania and Statistics Lithuania and Lithuanian Labour Exchange at the Ministry of Social Security and Labour)

In 2006, 7745 persons immigrated to Lithuania, which is by almost a thousand more than in 2005.

In comparison with total immigration netto it is noticeable that labour immigration is becoming progressively intense:


Migration trends in lithuania issues of monitoring and migrant integration

I. MIGRATION TRENDS: STATISTICS, TENDENCIES AND SECTORAL ANALYSIS

(Source: Statistics Lithuania and Lithuanian Labour Exchange at the Ministry of Social Security and Labour)

Gender and migration: a comparison of total and labour immigration by sex in 2006


Migration trends in lithuania issues of monitoring and migrant integration

I. MIGRATION TRENDS: STATISTICS, TENDENCIES AND SECTORAL ANALYSIS

(Source: Statistics Lithuania and Lithuanian Labour Exchange at the Ministry of Social Security and Labour)

Immigration by nationality

In 2006 most persons (5.5 thousand, or 71.1 percent) who arrived to Lithuania were citizens of the Republic of Lithuania. Almost 70 per cent of returning citizens of the Republic of Lithuania were aged under 35. The main countries of immigration are Belarus, Russia and Ukraine:


Migration trends in lithuania issues of monitoring and migrant integration

I. MIGRATION TRENDS: STATISTICS, TENDENCIES AND SECTORAL ANALYSIS

(Source: Lithuanian Labour Exchange at the Ministry of Social Security and Labour)

The main countries of labour immigration remain Belarus and Ukraine:


Migration trends in lithuania issues of monitoring and migrant integration

SECTORAL ANALYSIS OF LABOUR IMMIGRATION

(Source: Lithuanian Labour Exchange at the Ministry of Social Security and Labour)


Migration trends in lithuania issues of monitoring and migrant integration

REFUGEES IN THE REPUBLIC OF LITHUANIA

(Source: Migration Department under the Ministry of the Interior of the Republic of Lithuania)


Migration trends in lithuania issues of monitoring and migrant integration

II. SOCIAL ACTORS AND PROCESS OF MIGRATION POLICY FORMATION

Main documents regulating migration policy

I. Law on the Legal Status of Aliens (last amendment – on February 2008) regulates:

1. Issues concerning the arrival and departure of foreigners;

2. Temporary and permanent residence, work, legal responsibilities, and other issues concerning the legal status of aliens in the Republic of Lithuania;

3. Defines the status of refugees or persons that are given other forms of protection;

4. Defines the issues of family reunification, etc.

II. Strategy of Regulation of Economic Migration (2007)

Main objectives:

1. To formulate long-term regulation measures of economic migration;

2. To regulate factors, which stimulate economic migration in order to assure match between labour force demand and supply;

3. To invoke workers from third countries with taking into consideration remigration process and giving priority to EU citizens;

4. To maintain close relations with Lithuanians (economic migrants) and Lithuanian communities living abroad;

5. To ensure effective institutional cooperation regarding issues of economic migration.


Migration trends in lithuania issues of monitoring and migrant integration

II. SOCIAL ACTORS AND PROCESS OF MIGRATION POLICY FORMATION

Strategy of Regulation of Economic Migration (2007)

Main social actors:

1. Ministry of Foreign Affairs;

2. Ministry of Social Security and Labour;

3. Ministry of Interior;

4. Ministry of Finances;

5. Social partners:

*International Organization for Migration (Section in Vilnius);

*Trade-unions;

*Employers;

*Academics;

*Companies, which activities are concerned in bringing foreign labour force from third countries

*etc.


Migration trends in lithuania issues of monitoring and migrant integration

II. SOCIAL ACTORS AND PROCESS OF MIGRATION POLICY FORMATION

Mass emigration

+

Population ageing

+

One of the biggest death-rate in EU

Complex of demographic problems

+

Big impact on the structure of labour market (labour force shortage)

Corporate sector’s pressure (or demands) for liberal laws allowing labour migrants from third countries to work in the Republic of Lithuania

Influence on the structure of Strategy of Regulation of Economic Migration and other policy implementations

Immigration flows / integration measures / selectively open migration policy


Migration trends in lithuania issues of monitoring and migrant integration

II. SOCIAL ACTORS AND PROCESS OF MIGRATION POLICY FORMATION

Result of corporate pressure to liberalize labour force import from third countries:

1. The administrative process to employ foreign workers from third countries was facilitated.

Considering recent debates and suggestions for economic migration policy, there should be more amendments allowing third countries nationals to enter the Republic of Lithuania more easily. Among them:

1. Amendment of the Law on Legal status of Aliens: family reunion;

2. Integration tax, which could be paid by employers;

3. Restructuring of conditions for the issue of work permits for foreigners.


Migration trends in lithuania issues of monitoring and migrant integration

II. SOCIAL ACTORS AND PROCESS OF MIGRATION POLICY FORMATION Societal attitudes

(Source: Centre of Ethnic Studies at the Institute for Social Research, 2007)


Migration trends in lithuania issues of monitoring and migrant integration

Equal rights for foreigners and citizens of Lithuania in labour relations

Considering labour shortage we should let labour migrants fulfill labour market demands

Labour migrants benefit Lithuanian economy

0%

20%

40%

60%

80%

100%

Agree

Disagree, tend to disagree

Disagree

80,7

6

13,3

II. SOCIAL ACTORS AND PROCESS OF MIGRATION POLICY FORMATION

Societal attitudes

(Source: Centre of Ethnic Studies at the Institute for Social Research, 2008)

60,6

32,8

6,6

56,6

36,1

7,2


Migration trends in lithuania issues of monitoring and migrant integration

It is enough foreign workers in Lithuania and we do not need any more

Migrant workers can trigger social disorder

0%

20%

40%

60%

80%

100%

II. SOCIAL ACTORS AND PROCESS OF MIGRATION POLICY FORMATION

Societal attitudes

(Source: Centre of Ethnic Studies at the Institute for Social Research, 2008)

46,9

42,6

10,5

62,1

30,5

7,5

Agree, tend to agree

Disagree, tend to disagree

Has no opinion


Migration trends in lithuania issues of monitoring and migrant integration

II. SOCIAL ACTORS AND PROCESS OF MIGRATION POLICY FORMATION

Media response

Headlines design single-sided (negative) attitude towards labour migrants and immigration in general.

For instance:

“Flood of migrants”;

“Migrants overflow”;

“Immigration – a bomb of delayed-action”;

“Lithuanians are becoming minority”, etc.


Migration trends in lithuania issues of monitoring and migrant integration

III. MIGRANT INTEGRATION

Measures and policies of minority integration

1. Minority integration programmes (Sunday schools, non-governmental organisations of corresponding communities, etc.);

2. Education for children and adults: equalizing courses (special grades (or classes) for pupils and adults who come from different backgrounds and need certain time to adjust);

3. Schools with minority languages (network of secondary schools where teaching is carried out in minority languages – Russian and Polish);

4. The infrastructure of refugee social integration (language courses, vocational training, courses on Lithuanian culture and traditions as well as well developed infrastructure on implementing refugee social integration).


Migration trends in lithuania issues of monitoring and migrant integration

III. MIGRANT INTEGRATION

The infrastructure of refugee social integration

In 2005 Lithuania received more than 1,9 millions LTL from European Refugee Fund for Refugee Social Integration Programme

Main elements of social integration:

1. Language courses;

2. Vocational training;

3. Courses on Lithuanian culture and traditions, etc.

Partners and production of social integration:

1. At least 23 institutions (governmental and NGOs);

2. Range of various projects and researches on integration issue every year and a lot more.

Financial recourses:

1. EU;

2. Government.

The resources as well as whole infrastructure of refugee social integration is not being used for labour migrant integration.


Migration trends in lithuania issues of monitoring and migrant integration

Thank you

Questions?


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