Introducing theory of constraints in an mpa course
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Introducing Theory of Constraints in an MPA course. Bruce J. Neubauer Richard C. Gay Albany State University. What is Theory of Constraints?. TOC is a management philosophy based on systems thinking introduced by Dr. Eliyahu M. Goldratt. The constraint is what limits throughput or outcome.

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Introducing theory of constraints in an mpa course

Introducing Theory of Constraints in an MPA course

Bruce J. Neubauer

Richard C. Gay

Albany State University


What is theory of constraints
What is Theory of Constraints?

  • TOC is a management philosophy based on systems thinking introduced by Dr. Eliyahu M. Goldratt.

  • The constraint is what limits throughput or outcome.

  • Challenges some of the core assumptions of scientific management.


What is a constraint
What is a constraint?

  • A constraint is what limits throughput of either an industrial or “business” process.

Inspection

Shipping

Assembly

Painting


Identify the constraint
Identify the constraint . . .

A constraint is what limits throughput of either an industrial or “business” process.

Activity 7

Activity 8


A logical constraint is what prevents a program from being successful
A logical constraint is what prevents a program from being successful.

  • Critical success factors and necessary conditions are potential “show stoppers.”

TOC Intermediate Objectives map represented using Transformation LogicTree software


Some additional basic terms
Some additional basic terms . . .

  • Goal

  • Critical Success Factors (CSR)

  • Necessary Conditions (NC)

  • Intermediate Objective (IO)

  • Undesirable Effect (UDE)

  • Causal relationship

  • Feedback loop

  • Root Cause (RD)


Some basic toc diagrams
Some basic TOC diagrams . . .

  • Intermediate Objectives (IO) map

  • Current Reality Tree (CRT)

  • Evaporating Cloud (ED) (Conflict resolution diagram)

  • Future Reality Tree (FRT)


Intermediate objectives io map
Intermediate Objectives (IO) map . . .

  • Goal(s)

  • Critical Success Factors

  • Necessary Conditions for achievement of Critical Success Factors


Current reality tree
Current Reality Tree . . .

  • The problem or lack

  • The essential reasons for the problem/lack

  • Undesirable effects

  • Root causes


Evaporating clouds
Evaporating Clouds . . .

  • Conflict resolution diagram

  • Examine assumptions

  • Identify needed “injections”

Source: Clark Ching -- More Chilli Please Website http://www.clarkeching.com


Future reality tree
Future Reality Tree . . .

  • The goal achieved

  • The CSF’s

  • The NC’s

  • Positive feedback loops

  • Injections


The mpa course
The MPA course . . .

  • PADM 5823

  • Albany State University

  • Program Development, Management and Evaluation

  • Spring 2009


The class project
The class project . . .

  • To design a new youth recreation program for Calhoun County, Georgia so as to address multiple needs in the county.

  • To do so using Theory of Constraints and Transformation LogicTree modeling software.


The software
The software . . .

  • Transformation LogicTree


Calhoun county
Calhoun County . . .

  • In rural Southwest Georgia

  • Limited employment opportunities

  • Limited recreational opportunities

  • About 49% African American and about 49% White

  • Growing Hispanic population

  • Substantial adult rate of illiteracy


Class experiences
Class experiences . . .

  • Construction of an Intermediate Objectives diagram was not difficult.

  • Construction of a Current Reality Tree (CRT) was moderately difficult.

  • Construction of Evaporating Clouds was confusing and difficult.

  • Construction of Future Reality Tree (FRT) was difficult.


Suggestions based on experiences
Suggestions based on experiences . . .

  • The instructor should first read Dettmer’s two books –

    • The Logical Thinking Process

    • Strategic Navigation.

  • Don’t assume that reading books is sufficient.

  • Arrange to use TLT software with Dr. Mark Van Oyen

  • If possible, find a “Jonah” as a resource for the instructor and students


More suggestions
More suggestions . . .

  • Approach this as an experiment.

  • Don’t make it “high stakes” for students.

  • Don’t assume that the models build on one another in a simple mechanical way.

  • Use Evaporating Clouds (if possible) to explore and question assumptions and to identify possible needed injections.

  • Work for enlightenment -- not mastery.


The end
The End

  • Questions?

  • Comments?

  • Personal experiences?


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