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1198 Innocent III (p. 1198-1216) calls for new Crusade Fourth Crusade

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1198 Innocent III (p. 1198-1216) calls for new Crusade Fourth Crusade 1202 Crusaders gather at Venice 1204 Crusaders take Constantinople, set up Latin Empire there (until 1261). Map Link: Fourth Crusade: < http://4.bp.blogspot.com/-H1RtD269aNQ/TiNDMh-mZSI/

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Presentation Transcript
slide1

1198 Innocent III (p. 1198-1216) calls for

new Crusade

Fourth Crusade

1202 Crusaders gather at Venice

1204 Crusaders take Constantinople, set up

Latin Empire there (until 1261)

slide2

Map Link: Fourth Crusade:

<http://4.bp.blogspot.com/-H1RtD269aNQ/TiNDMh-mZSI/

AAAAAAAAAB0/tilkVb3Bvn8/s1600/Map+of+the+

fourth+crusade.gif>

slide3

1218 Forces of Fifth Crusade attack Egypt,

take Damietta (in 1219)

1221 Muslims defeat Crusaders

Al-Kamil (r. 1218-38)

slide4

Map Link: Fifth Crusade:

<http://domin.dom.edu/faculty/dperry/hist267crusade/calendar/

13thcentury/images/nile.jpg>

slide5

1215 Frederick II (Holy Roman Emperor,

1215-50), takes crusading vow, but

delays and is excommunicated

1226 Al-Kamil contacts Frederick

1228 Frederick arrives in Holy Land

slide6

Feb 1229 Frederick II negotiates the handover

of Jerusalem with al-Kamil

Dome of the Rock Aqsa Mosque

17/3/1229 Frederick II crowns self king in

Jerusalem

1244 Turks take Jerusalem

slide7

Map Link: Frederick II’s Crusade (shaded areas):

<http://www.studenthandouts.com/photo_gallery/

Maps/MiddleAges-2.jpg>

slide8

June 1249Louis IX of France (r. 1226-70)

takes Damietta. Al-Salih (r. 1240-9) dies,

but wife Shajar al-Durr conceals his death

Feb 1250 Muslims defeat Crusaders, capture

Louis IX and temporarily hold him prisoner

May 1250 Mamluk takeover in Egypt (rule

until 1517)

1260 Mamluks complete conquest of Syria

slide9

Map Links:

Louis IX in Egypt:

<http://domin.dom.edu/faculty/dperry/hist267crusade/calendar/

13thcentury/louis/images/map-louis.jpg>

The Mamluk Takeover:

<http://www.mideastweb.org/Middle-East-Encyclopedia/

mameluke_empire_map.jpg>

slide10

1268 Mamluks take Antioch

1289 Mamluks take Tripoli

1291 Mamluks take Acre

slide11

Map Link: Mamluk Sultanate (after Conquests):

<http://3.bp.blogspot.com/_NfsdvUxYGkI/SlYDtsdM_FI/

AAAAAAAANgE/A4kTQM7MgAg/s400/Mamluks.JPG>

slide12

Criticism of crusading:

Innocent III directing Crusades against

pagans, heretics (incl. Albigensians,

1209-29), but also political opponents

Alternatives: Children’s Crusade (1212),

Shepherds’Crusade (1251)

Blame of military orders

Objections to taxation (e.g. Saladin Tithe)

slide13

Attempts at conversion; e.g. 1219 St Francis

of Assisi (1182-1226) preaches to

al-Kamil

slide14

Impact of the Crusades:

On bureaucracies

On women

On Jews

On trade and exploration

On the Muslim world

slide15

St John Ambulance Foundation

Order of the Hospital of St John of Jerusalem

Knights Hospitaller

22nd July 2011 Anders Behring Breivik kills

77 people in Norway in name of “Knights

Templar Europe”

slide16

George W. Bush: “This crusade, this war on

terrorism is going to take a while.”

(16th Sept 2001)

19th c. First histories of Crusades in

Middle East

Usama ibn Ladin (Osama bin Laden,

d. 2011)

slide17

Robert of Clari (c. 1180-after 1216)

Poor knight on Fourth Crusade - eyewitness

Aims to instruct

Generally regarded as critical of leaders

of the Crusade

slide18

Nicetas Choniates

(btw. 1155 and 1160-c. 1217)

Byzantine statesman and historian

Studied in Constantinople. Reached high rank

in state administration

Emigrated to Nicea after Fourth Crusade

slide19

Nicetas Choniates

(btw. 1155 and 1160-c. 1217)

Chronike Diegesis (chronicle covering

1118-1207)

Eyewitness account, but with strong bias

(of course)

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