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Sound. W h a t i s S O U N D ?. Sound is longitudinal pressure waves that travel through elastic media. We can produce these vibrations by : Making a column of air vibrate, plucking a string, or by hitting an object. Sound Waves.

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Sound

Sound


Sound

WhatisSOUND?

Sound is longitudinal pressure waves that travel through elastic media.


Sound

  • We can produce these vibrations by :

    • Making a column of air vibrate,

    • plucking a string, or

    • by hitting an object


Sound

Sound Waves

Sound Waves are caused by a source vibrating to and fro and causing successive compressions (squashing) and rarefactions (spreading out) in the medium; hence sound cannot travel in a vacuum.

Sound waves are received by the ear, and interpreted by the brain.


Sound

Sound can vary in pitch– howhighorlowa note is.

It can also vary involume –howloudor howsoftthe note is


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An amplifier makes the sound louder. We talk about the amplitude of the wave, which tells us how much energy there is. The taller the wave the louder the sound because more energy has been put in


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The loudness depends on how much energy the sound wave has.

In an electric key board an amplifier makes the sound louder.

A louder note has a bigger amplitude. (height)


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Loudness is measured in decibels dB


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These help to make sound louder so the amplitude or height of the wave would be higher. The wave has more energy


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The pitch depends on how many vibrations there are.

The more frequent the vibrations the higher the note.

The fewer the vibrations the lower the note


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The higher the note, the more waves per second so the waves are squashed together.

The waves will have a short wave length.


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The lower the note, the FEWER waves per second so the waves are spread out.

The waves will have a longer wave length.


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Different instruments produce different shaped wave traces.

The extra wiggles are known as harmonics. These give the instrument its “colour”.


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Most instruments usually produce many frequencies or harmonics at the same time. All the harmonics add together to make a complicated waveform.


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Here are some synthesized wave traces each shape represents a different kind of sound.


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On the next few slides you will find internet sites that you can visit by clicking on the web address

http://micro.magnet.fsu.edu/electromag/java/speaker/

http://www.brainpop.com/science/sound/sound/index.weml


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How Stuff Works article on CDs and CD playerswww.howstuffworks.com/cd.htm

How tape recorders workwww.howstuffworks.com/cassette.htm

Short BrainPop movie about CDs and DVDswww.brainpop.com/tech/musicandsound/cd/index.weml

How CDs work, with an animated diagrammicro.magnet.fsu.edu/electromag/java/cd/

How CDs and CD players workwww.discoverengineering.org/eweek/cool_things/cd/index.htm

How analogue and digital recording workswww.howstuffworks.com/analog-digital.htm

The technology of vinyl records compared with CDswww.pbs.org/ktca/newtons/11/cdlp.html

An animated look at how a speaker worksmicro.magnet.fsu.edu/electromag/java/speaker/


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Watch a movie about soundwww.brainpop.com/science/sound/sound/index.weml

Take an underwater sound quizwww.pbs.org/wgbh/nova/subsecrets/sounds.html#02

Find out why sonic booms occur, with help from a speeding motorboatwww.howstuffworks.com/question73.htm

How bats use echolocationmembers.aol.com/obcbats/ecolocation.html


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