Lesson 16 freshwater stress part ii water pollution
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Lesson 16: Freshwater Stress: Part II – Water Pollution. Amy Duray EVPP 490 003 5 April 2010. Water Quality Alterations. Point-source versus non-point source pollution pH Eutrophication and Nutrient Load Minerals, Metals and Toxic Substances. Drivers.

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Lesson 16: Freshwater Stress: Part II – Water Pollution

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Lesson 16 freshwater stress part ii water pollution

Lesson 16: Freshwater Stress: Part II – Water Pollution

Amy Duray

EVPP 490 003

5 April 2010


Water quality alterations

Water Quality Alterations

  • Point-source versus non-point source pollution

  • pH

  • Eutrophication and Nutrient Load

  • Minerals, Metals and Toxic Substances


Drivers

Drivers

  • Increasing Human populations, especially in historically occupied river basins and coastal enclaves

  • Increasing globalization in world economy

  • Natural Hydrologic processes


Pressures

Pressures

  • Agricultural expansion

  • Urbanization

  • Increasing industrial (point source) pollution

  • Increasing agricultural (non-point source) pollution

  • Reduced hydrologic flow – concentrates pollution and makes it more difficult to flush or dilute pollution once it is in the water source.

  • Changes in precipitation/Increasing variability especially with respect to monsoons. (Urban storm-water events)


State and trends 1 of 2

State and Trends – (1 of 2)

  • Increasing nutrient loads

  • Increasing pollutant loads

  • Groundwater pollution


State and trends 2 of 2

State and Trends (2 of 2)


Impacts

Impacts

  • Eutrophication

  • Fish kills

  • Impacts to human health

  • Decreased availability of potable water


China pressures

China: Pressures

  • Increasing agricultural inputs of fertilizer and pesticide

  • Increasing urbanization means increasing storm water inputs, and larger pollutant load

  • Industrial discharges

  • Increasing production of hazardous wastes, with poor disposal/sequestration protocols

  • Increased damming for hydropower leading to reduced flow volume

  • Increasing irrigation withdraws leading to reduced flow volume

  • Lack of adequate enforcement of National environmental policies regarding waste water


China state and trends

China: State and Trends

  • Aquifers below 90% of China’s cities are polluted

  • The Chinese Government has reported that 30% of river water throughout the country is unfit for use in agriculture or industry

  • 700 Million people drink water contaminated with animal and human wastes


China impacts

China: Impacts

  • World Bank links water contamination as the leading cause of death among children under age 5.

  • 11% of gastrointestinal cancers in China are linked to water pollutants

  • Every year, an estimated 460,000 people die prematurely in China due to exposure to air and water pollution, according to a 2007 World Bank study

  • The health burden has an economic price. The cost of cancer treatment has reached almost 100 billion yuan a year ($14.6 billion), accounting for 20 percent of China's medical expenditure, according to Chinese media.

  • Widespread lotic habitat destruction


China the huai river

China – The Huai River


The huai river

The Huai River

  • Most densely populated area of China

  • Water utilization exceed 70%

  • Heavily impounded: 5,600 reservoirs

  • Industries: paper-making, brewing, chemical production, tanning, and tobacco and food processing

  • Between 1981 and 2003, the population grew by 30 percent


Pollutants in the huai

Pollutants in the Huai

  • Ineffective/inadequate wastewater treatment

  • 50% - industrial pollutants

  • Wheat straw


Quick chronology of the huai

Quick Chronology of the Huai

  • 1853 – Major Hydrologic changes to the Yellow river leave Huai with no outlet to the sea

  • 1917 – China seeks partnership with both Canada and US engineers to relieve flooding

  • 1950 – Disastrous flooding: Mao creates Huai River Conservancy

  • 1974 – major pollution release

  • 1975 – collapse of two dams kills 250,000

  • 1991, 1996 – major seasonal flooding

  • 1998 – Zero Hour Operation - plan to clean the river

  • 1999-2000 – River runs dry in the dry season

  • 2001 – Additional flooding – 38 Billion Gallons

  • 2004 – Further flooding – 500 million tons of polluted water after a rainfall


Flooding in the huai river valley

Flooding in the Huai River Valley


Difficulties in implementing controls

Difficulties in implementing controls

  • Four provinces

  • Size-based standards

  • Unrealistically high targets for reduction

  • Inadequate enforcement

  • Impounding water makes it difficult to control contamination created by flood events


Response green gdp

Response - Green GDP

  • http://www.chinadialogue.net/article/show/single/en/1219

  • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=t77bLtIck2g&feature=related


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