lesson 16 freshwater stress part ii water pollution
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Lesson 16: Freshwater Stress: Part II – Water Pollution

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Lesson 16: Freshwater Stress: Part II – Water Pollution. Amy Duray EVPP 490 003 5 April 2010. Water Quality Alterations. Point-source versus non-point source pollution pH Eutrophication and Nutrient Load Minerals, Metals and Toxic Substances. Drivers.

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water quality alterations
Water Quality Alterations
  • Point-source versus non-point source pollution
  • pH
  • Eutrophication and Nutrient Load
  • Minerals, Metals and Toxic Substances
drivers
Drivers
  • Increasing Human populations, especially in historically occupied river basins and coastal enclaves
  • Increasing globalization in world economy
  • Natural Hydrologic processes
pressures
Pressures
  • Agricultural expansion
  • Urbanization
  • Increasing industrial (point source) pollution
  • Increasing agricultural (non-point source) pollution
  • Reduced hydrologic flow – concentrates pollution and makes it more difficult to flush or dilute pollution once it is in the water source.
  • Changes in precipitation/Increasing variability especially with respect to monsoons. (Urban storm-water events)
state and trends 1 of 2
State and Trends – (1 of 2)
  • Increasing nutrient loads
  • Increasing pollutant loads
  • Groundwater pollution
impacts
Impacts
  • Eutrophication
  • Fish kills
  • Impacts to human health
  • Decreased availability of potable water
china pressures
China: Pressures
  • Increasing agricultural inputs of fertilizer and pesticide
  • Increasing urbanization means increasing storm water inputs, and larger pollutant load
  • Industrial discharges
  • Increasing production of hazardous wastes, with poor disposal/sequestration protocols
  • Increased damming for hydropower leading to reduced flow volume
  • Increasing irrigation withdraws leading to reduced flow volume
  • Lack of adequate enforcement of National environmental policies regarding waste water
china state and trends
China: State and Trends
  • Aquifers below 90% of China’s cities are polluted
  • The Chinese Government has reported that 30% of river water throughout the country is unfit for use in agriculture or industry
  • 700 Million people drink water contaminated with animal and human wastes
china impacts
China: Impacts
  • World Bank links water contamination as the leading cause of death among children under age 5.
  • 11% of gastrointestinal cancers in China are linked to water pollutants
  • Every year, an estimated 460,000 people die prematurely in China due to exposure to air and water pollution, according to a 2007 World Bank study
  • The health burden has an economic price. The cost of cancer treatment has reached almost 100 billion yuan a year ($14.6 billion), accounting for 20 percent of China\'s medical expenditure, according to Chinese media.
  • Widespread lotic habitat destruction
the huai river
The Huai River
  • Most densely populated area of China
  • Water utilization exceed 70%
  • Heavily impounded: 5,600 reservoirs
  • Industries: paper-making, brewing, chemical production, tanning, and tobacco and food processing
  • Between 1981 and 2003, the population grew by 30 percent
pollutants in the huai
Pollutants in the Huai
  • Ineffective/inadequate wastewater treatment
  • 50% - industrial pollutants
  • Wheat straw
quick chronology of the huai
Quick Chronology of the Huai
  • 1853 – Major Hydrologic changes to the Yellow river leave Huai with no outlet to the sea
  • 1917 – China seeks partnership with both Canada and US engineers to relieve flooding
  • 1950 – Disastrous flooding: Mao creates Huai River Conservancy
  • 1974 – major pollution release
  • 1975 – collapse of two dams kills 250,000
  • 1991, 1996 – major seasonal flooding
  • 1998 – Zero Hour Operation - plan to clean the river
  • 1999-2000 – River runs dry in the dry season
  • 2001 – Additional flooding – 38 Billion Gallons
  • 2004 – Further flooding – 500 million tons of polluted water after a rainfall
difficulties in implementing controls
Difficulties in implementing controls
  • Four provinces
  • Size-based standards
  • Unrealistically high targets for reduction
  • Inadequate enforcement
  • Impounding water makes it difficult to control contamination created by flood events
response green gdp
Response - Green GDP
  • http://www.chinadialogue.net/article/show/single/en/1219
  • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=t77bLtIck2g&feature=related
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