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Chapter 12: Genotype  Phenotype. CO 14. GENES SPECIFY ENZYMES. GENES SPECIFY PROTEINS. The Central Dogma DNA  RNA Amino Acid (Protein). Figure 14.3. RNA is a lot like DNA, except: 1. Ribose 2. Uracil 3. Single Strand *Can leave the nucleus, carries the "message" .

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Co 14

Chapter 12: Genotype  Phenotype

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Genes specify enzymes


Genes specify proteins


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The Central Dogma



Amino Acid (Protein)

Figure 14 3

Figure 14.3

RNA is a lot like DNA, except:

1. Ribose

2. Uracil

3. Single Strand

*Can leave the nucleus, carries the "message" 

Figure 14 5

Every 3 bases on mRNA  (messenger RNA) is called a CODON

Each CODON specifies one AMINO ACID

Chains of amino acids are proteins          (ex.  hemoglobin)

Figure 14.5

Figure 14 6


The process where mRNA is made from DNA

Follows base-pair rule

has uracil instead of thymine

RNA polymerase is used to build the strand of RNA

Figure 14.6

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Transcription Animations


Transcription:  University of Nebraska


Translation process by which protein is built from the mrna

Translation:  process by which protein is built from the mRNA

 tRNA is used to build an amino acid chain

Each 3 bases on mRNA codes for a single amino acid. 

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3 bases on mRNA 

     = a codon

Matching 3 bases on tRNA

    = anticodon

tRNA has a single attached amino acid

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Translation occurs on the ribosome

mRNA is threaded through the small and large subunit

Figure 14 10b

Figure 14.10b

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Each tRNA delivers an amino acid which binds to the previous amino acid, eventually forming a long chain .....a PROTEIN

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All genes start with AUG, also called the START CODON

It attaches to anticodon UAC and the amino acid methionine

Figure 14 12

Figure 14.12

Figure 14 13

Figure 14.13

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The Big Picture  (aka The Central Dogma)

Figure 14 4

Figure 14.4

Animations of translation

Animations of Translation


Translation: University of Nebraska


Figure 12bc

Figure 12Bc

Figure 12bda

Figure 12Bda

Figure 12 10a


Figure 12.10a

Figure 12 10b


Figure 12.10b

Figure 12bdb

Figure 12Bdb

Figure 12 11


Figure 12.11

Figure 12 11b

Figure 12.11b

Figure 12ba

Figure 12Ba

Figure 12bb

Figure 12Bb

Figure 12 12a

Figure 12.12a

Figure 12 12b

Figure 12.12b

Trisomy 18 edward s syndrome

Trisomy 18 - Edward's Syndrome

  • Failure to grow and gain weight at the expected rate and severe feeding difficulties, diminished muscle tone and episodes in which there is temporary cessation of spontaneous breathing

  • Developmental delays and intellectual disability

  • A prominent back portion of the head, low-set, malformed ears, an abnormally small jaw, a small mouth an upturned nose, narrow eyelid folds, widely spaced eyes, and drooping of the upper eyelids

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TRISOMY 13 (also known as Patau syndrome) - Of all babies born with the extra copy of chromosome 13 in all the cells of their body, around 50% die in the first month, and the rest within the first year Median survival age for children with Patau syndrome is 2.5 days

Chromosome mutations


Figure 12 13

Figure 12.13

Figure 12 13a

Figure 12.13a

Figure 12 13b

Figure 12.13b

Figure 12 13c

Figure 12.13c

Figure 12 13d

Figure 12.13d

Figure 12 14

Figure 12.14

Deletion mutation williams syndrome


Williams syndrome deletion of chromosome 7

Williams Syndrome –Deletion of Chromosome 7

Figure 12 16

Figure 12.16

Figure 12 16b

Figure 12.16b

Cri du chat deletion of chromosome 5

CRI DU CHATDeletion of Chromosome #5

Fragile x duplication mutation

FRAGILE X - duplication mutation

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