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Chapter 12: Genotype  Phenotype. CO 14. GENES SPECIFY ENZYMES. GENES SPECIFY PROTEINS. The Central Dogma DNA  RNA Amino Acid (Protein). Figure 14.3. RNA is a lot like DNA, except: 1. Ribose 2. Uracil 3. Single Strand *Can leave the nucleus, carries the "message" .

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Co 14

Chapter 12: Genotype  Phenotype

CO 14




The Central Dogma

DNA 

RNA

Amino Acid (Protein)


Figure 14 3

Figure 14.3

RNA is a lot like DNA, except:

1. Ribose

2. Uracil

3. Single Strand

*Can leave the nucleus, carries the "message" 


Figure 14 5

Every 3 bases on mRNA  (messenger RNA) is called a CODON

Each CODON specifies one AMINO ACID

Chains of amino acids are proteins          (ex.  hemoglobin)

Figure 14.5


Figure 14 6

TRANSCRIPTION:

The process where mRNA is made from DNA

Follows base-pair rule

has uracil instead of thymine

RNA polymerase is used to build the strand of RNA

Figure 14.6


Transcription Animations

Transcription: Stolaf.edu

Transcription:  University of Nebraska

Transcription: Concord.org


Translation process by which protein is built from the mrna
Translation:  process by which protein is built from the mRNA

 tRNA is used to build an amino acid chain

Each 3 bases on mRNA codes for a single amino acid. 


3 bases on mRNA  mRNA

     = a codon

Matching 3 bases on tRNA

    = anticodon

tRNA has a single attached amino acid


Translation occurs on the ribosome mRNA

mRNA is threaded through the small and large subunit



Each tRNA delivers an amino acid which binds to the previous amino acid, eventually forming a long chain .....a PROTEIN


All genes start with AUG, also called the START CODON amino acid, eventually forming a long chain .....a PROTEIN

It attaches to anticodon UAC and the amino acid methionine


Figure 14 12

Figure 14.12 amino acid, eventually forming a long chain .....a PROTEIN


Figure 14 13

Figure 14.13 amino acid, eventually forming a long chain .....a PROTEIN


The Big Picture  (aka The Central Dogma) amino acid, eventually forming a long chain .....a PROTEIN


Figure 14 4

Figure 14.4 amino acid, eventually forming a long chain .....a PROTEIN


Animations of translation
Animations of Translation amino acid, eventually forming a long chain .....a PROTEIN

Translation: Stolaf.edu

Translation: University of Nebraska

Translation: Concord.org


Figure 12bc

Figure 12Bc amino acid, eventually forming a long chain .....a PROTEIN


Figure 12bda

Figure 12Bda amino acid, eventually forming a long chain .....a PROTEIN


Figure 12 10a

NONDISJUNCTION CHANGES CHROMOSOME NUMBERS amino acid, eventually forming a long chain .....a PROTEIN

Figure 12.10a


Figure 12 10b

NONDISJUNCTION CHANGES CHROMOSOME NUMBERS amino acid, eventually forming a long chain .....a PROTEIN

Figure 12.10b


Figure 12bdb

Figure 12Bdb amino acid, eventually forming a long chain .....a PROTEIN


Figure 12 11

DOWN SYNDROME & amino acid, eventually forming a long chain .....a PROTEINGart Gene

Figure 12.11


Figure 12 11b

Figure 12.11b amino acid, eventually forming a long chain .....a PROTEIN


Figure 12ba

Figure 12Ba amino acid, eventually forming a long chain .....a PROTEIN


Figure 12bb

Figure 12Bb amino acid, eventually forming a long chain .....a PROTEIN


Figure 12 12a

Figure 12.12a amino acid, eventually forming a long chain .....a PROTEIN


Figure 12 12b

Figure 12.12b amino acid, eventually forming a long chain .....a PROTEIN


Trisomy 18 edward s syndrome
Trisomy 18 - Edward's Syndrome amino acid, eventually forming a long chain .....a PROTEIN

  • Failure to grow and gain weight at the expected rate and severe feeding difficulties, diminished muscle tone and episodes in which there is temporary cessation of spontaneous breathing

  • Developmental delays and intellectual disability

  • A prominent back portion of the head, low-set, malformed ears, an abnormally small jaw, a small mouth an upturned nose, narrow eyelid folds, widely spaced eyes, and drooping of the upper eyelids


TRISOMY 13 (also known as amino acid, eventually forming a long chain .....a PROTEINPatau syndrome) - Of all babies born with the extra copy of chromosome 13 in all the cells of their body, around 50% die in the first month, and the rest within the first year Median survival age for children with Patau syndrome is 2.5 days


Chromosome mutations

CHROMOSOME MUTATIONS amino acid, eventually forming a long chain .....a PROTEIN


Figure 12 13

Figure 12.13 amino acid, eventually forming a long chain .....a PROTEIN


Figure 12 13a

Figure 12.13a amino acid, eventually forming a long chain .....a PROTEIN


Figure 12 13b

Figure 12.13b amino acid, eventually forming a long chain .....a PROTEIN


Figure 12 13c

Figure 12.13c amino acid, eventually forming a long chain .....a PROTEIN


Figure 12 13d

Figure 12.13d amino acid, eventually forming a long chain .....a PROTEIN


Figure 12 14

Figure 12.14 amino acid, eventually forming a long chain .....a PROTEIN


Deletion mutation williams syndrome

DELETION MUTATION amino acid, eventually forming a long chain .....a PROTEIN(WILLIAMS SYNDROME)


Williams syndrome deletion of chromosome 7

Williams Syndrome – amino acid, eventually forming a long chain .....a PROTEINDeletion of Chromosome 7


Figure 12 16

Figure 12.16 amino acid, eventually forming a long chain .....a PROTEIN


Figure 12 16b

Figure 12.16b amino acid, eventually forming a long chain .....a PROTEIN


Cri du chat deletion of chromosome 5

CRI DU CHAT amino acid, eventually forming a long chain .....a PROTEINDeletion of Chromosome #5


Fragile x duplication mutation

FRAGILE X - duplication mutation amino acid, eventually forming a long chain .....a PROTEIN


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