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Environmental Climate and Disease. GDvorak. Earth’s Atmosphere. Global warming Rise in global mean temperature Increased of heat-trapping greenhouse gases Carbon dioxide, methane Climate change General term referring to changes in many climatic factors E.g., temperature, precipitation

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Environmental climate and disease

Environmental Climate and Disease

GDvorak


Earth s atmosphere
Earth’s Atmosphere

  • Global warming

    • Rise in global mean temperature

      • Increased of heat-trapping greenhouse gases

        • Carbon dioxide, methane

  • Climate change

    • General term referring to changes in many climatic factors

      • E.g., temperature, precipitation

    • Equals overall energy budget of planet

      • Incoming (solar) shortwave radiation

      • Outgoing longwave radiation

    • Affected by

      • Earth’s atmosphere

      • Greenhouse gases

        • carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4), and nitrous oxide (N2O)


Greenhouse gases
Greenhouse Gases

  • Carbon Dioxide

    • Burning of fossil fuels (oil, natural gas, coal)

    • Solid waste, trees and wood products

  • Methane (CH4)

    • Production and transport of coal, natural gas, oil

    • Livestock and other agricultural practices

    • Decay of organic waste in landfills

  • Nitrous Oxide (N2O)

    • Agricultural and industrial activities

    • Combustion of fossil fuels and solid waste

  • Fluorinated Gases

    • Hydrofluorocarbons, perfluorocarbons, sulfur hexafluoride

    • Ozone-depleting substances: CFC, HCFC, halons

    • Variety of industrial processes


Great Basin National Park - What is Climate Change? (U.S. National Park Service)

http://www.nps.gov/grba/naturescience/what-is-climate-change.htm


Health and environmental effects
Health and Environmental Effects National Park Service)

  • Many elements sensitive to climate changes

    • Human health

    • Agriculture and Food Supply

    • Natural Ecosystems

    • Coastal areas

    • Heating and cooling requirements

  • http://www.epa.gov/climatechange/effects/index.html


Effects
Effects National Park Service)

  • Direct temperature effects

    • Thermal stress (extremes of hot and cold temps)

  • Weather extreme events

    • Severe storms, floods, droughts

  • Climate sensitive diseases

    • Change in rainfall amount and pattern

      • Vector-borne diseases

      • Waterborne diseases

  • Air quality

    • Rising atmospheric concentration of CO2

    • Pollution levels


Impacts
Impacts National Park Service)

  • Increased temperature

    • Oceans and melting of ice - raises sea levels

    • Earlier timing of spring events

    • Higher elevation and latitude migrations of plants and animals

    • Saltification of coastal habitats and freshwater sources

    • More frequent extreme weather events

      • Heat waves, droughts, floods, snowfall

      • Direct damage to ecosystems and livelihoods


Impacts1
Impacts National Park Service)

  • Increased greenhouse gases Elevated CO2 levels

    • Decrease crop growth

    • Increase growth of weeds and/or invasive species

    • Depress function of herbicides

    • Ocean acidification

      • Damages estuary and coral reef systems – impacting food chains and fisheries


Impacts on disease occurrence
Impacts on Disease Occurrence National Park Service)

  • Emergence of new disease syndromes

  • Change in the prevalence of existing diseases, particularly those spread by biting insects

    • Rift Valley fever outbreaks – Africa

      • Predicted based on Indian Ocean weather

    • Bluetongue and Hantavirus –Europe

      • Movement into and across continent as a result of warmer habitats for vectors


Additional resources
Additional Resources National Park Service)

  • EPA: http://www.epa.gov/climatechange/

  • Global Climate Change and Implications for Disease Emergence – Slenning BD (2010)

    • http://vet.sagepub.com/content/47/1/28.full.pdf+html

  • Climate Change and Animal Disease – Summers BA (2010)

    • http://vet.sagepub.com/content/46/6/1185.full.pdf+html


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