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Environmental Climate and Disease. GDvorak. Earth’s Atmosphere. Global warming Rise in global mean temperature Increased of heat-trapping greenhouse gases Carbon dioxide, methane Climate change General term referring to changes in many climatic factors E.g., temperature, precipitation

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earth s atmosphere
Earth’s Atmosphere
  • Global warming
    • Rise in global mean temperature
      • Increased of heat-trapping greenhouse gases
        • Carbon dioxide, methane
  • Climate change
    • General term referring to changes in many climatic factors
      • E.g., temperature, precipitation
    • Equals overall energy budget of planet
      • Incoming (solar) shortwave radiation
      • Outgoing longwave radiation
    • Affected by
      • Earth’s atmosphere
      • Greenhouse gases
        • carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4), and nitrous oxide (N2O)
greenhouse gases
Greenhouse Gases
  • Carbon Dioxide
    • Burning of fossil fuels (oil, natural gas, coal)
    • Solid waste, trees and wood products
  • Methane (CH4)
    • Production and transport of coal, natural gas, oil
    • Livestock and other agricultural practices
    • Decay of organic waste in landfills
  • Nitrous Oxide (N2O)
    • Agricultural and industrial activities
    • Combustion of fossil fuels and solid waste
  • Fluorinated Gases
    • Hydrofluorocarbons, perfluorocarbons, sulfur hexafluoride
    • Ozone-depleting substances: CFC, HCFC, halons
    • Variety of industrial processes
slide5

Great Basin National Park - What is Climate Change? (U.S. National Park Service)

http://www.nps.gov/grba/naturescience/what-is-climate-change.htm

health and environmental effects
Health and Environmental Effects
  • Many elements sensitive to climate changes
    • Human health
    • Agriculture and Food Supply
    • Natural Ecosystems
    • Coastal areas
    • Heating and cooling requirements
  • http://www.epa.gov/climatechange/effects/index.html
effects
Effects
  • Direct temperature effects
    • Thermal stress (extremes of hot and cold temps)
  • Weather extreme events
    • Severe storms, floods, droughts
  • Climate sensitive diseases
    • Change in rainfall amount and pattern
      • Vector-borne diseases
      • Waterborne diseases
  • Air quality
    • Rising atmospheric concentration of CO2
    • Pollution levels
impacts
Impacts
  • Increased temperature
    • Oceans and melting of ice - raises sea levels
    • Earlier timing of spring events
    • Higher elevation and latitude migrations of plants and animals
    • Saltification of coastal habitats and freshwater sources
    • More frequent extreme weather events
      • Heat waves, droughts, floods, snowfall
      • Direct damage to ecosystems and livelihoods
impacts1
Impacts
  • Increased greenhouse gases Elevated CO2 levels
    • Decrease crop growth
    • Increase growth of weeds and/or invasive species
    • Depress function of herbicides
    • Ocean acidification
      • Damages estuary and coral reef systems – impacting food chains and fisheries
impacts on disease occurrence
Impacts on Disease Occurrence
  • Emergence of new disease syndromes
  • Change in the prevalence of existing diseases, particularly those spread by biting insects
    • Rift Valley fever outbreaks – Africa
      • Predicted based on Indian Ocean weather
    • Bluetongue and Hantavirus –Europe
      • Movement into and across continent as a result of warmer habitats for vectors
additional resources
Additional Resources
  • EPA: http://www.epa.gov/climatechange/
  • Global Climate Change and Implications for Disease Emergence – Slenning BD (2010)
    • http://vet.sagepub.com/content/47/1/28.full.pdf+html
  • Climate Change and Animal Disease – Summers BA (2010)
    • http://vet.sagepub.com/content/46/6/1185.full.pdf+html
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