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Section 4A. Introduction to Computers. Decimal Number System. Called base 10 because 10 symbols are available. Binary Number System. Computers function in base 2, or the binary number system, where there are only two values. Bit. A combination of binary digit

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Section 4a

Section 4A

Introduction to Computers


Decimal number system
Decimal Number System

  • Called base 10 because 10 symbols are available


Binary number system
Binary Number System

  • Computers function in base 2, or the binary number system, where there are only two values


Bit

  • A combination of binary digit

  • The smallest possible unit of data a computer can recognize or use


Byte

  • A group of eight bits


Text codes
Text Codes

  • EBCDIC

  • ASCII

  • Unicode


CPU

  • The CPU is the computer’s “brain” that manipulates data


Cpu s two basic parts
CPU’s Two Basic Parts

  • Control unit

  • Arithmetic logic unit


Control unit
Control Unit

  • Manages all the computer’s resources


Arithmetic logic unit
Arithmetic Logic Unit

  • Performs the CPU’s arithmetic and logical operations


Machine cycle
Machine Cycle

  • The completed series of steps the CPU takes to execute an instruction


Machine cycle s two cycles
Machine Cycle’s Two Cycles

  • Instruction cycle

  • Execution cycle


Instruction cycle
Instruction Cycle

  • Fetching

  • Decoding


Execution cycle
Execution Cycle

  • Executing

  • Storing


Millions of instructions per second mips
Millions of Instructions Per Second (MIPS)

  • The CPU performance measurement


Pipelining
Pipelining

  • Also called pipeline processing

  • The control unit begins a new machine cycle before the current cycle is completed


Memory
Memory

  • Allows the CPU to store and retrieve data quickly


Two kinds of memory
Two Kinds of Memory

  • Read-only memory (ROM): nonvolatile

  • Random-access memory (RAM): volatile


ROM

  • ROM always holds the same data, for example the computer’s start-up instructions


RAM

  • RAM’s job is to hold programs and data while they are in use

  • RAM can change instantly


Other kinds of ram
Other Kinds of RAM

  • Dynamic RAM (DRAM)

  • DRAM Variations

  • Static RAM (SRAM)


Factors affecting processing speed
Factors Affecting Processing Speed

  • Registers

  • Memory and computing power

  • System clock

  • The bus

  • The databus

  • The address bus

  • Cache memory


Bus types
Bus Types

  • Industry standard architecture (ISA) bus

  • Local bus

  • Peripheral component interconnect (PCI) bus

  • Accelerated Graphics Port (AGP) bus

  • Universal Serial Bus (USB)

  • IEEE 1394 (FireWire)


Data transfer rate
Data Transfer Rate

  • The amount of data buses can transfer in a second

  • Measured in megabits per second (Mbps) or megabytes per second (MBps)


Cache memory
Cache memory

  • Speeds processing by storing frequently used data or instructions in its high-speed memory


Section 4a1
Section 4A

  • Transforming Data Into Information


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