Section 4a
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Section 4A. Introduction to Computers. Decimal Number System. Called base 10 because 10 symbols are available. Binary Number System. Computers function in base 2, or the binary number system, where there are only two values. Bit. A combination of binary digit

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Section 4a

Section 4A

Introduction to Computers

Decimal number system
Decimal Number System

  • Called base 10 because 10 symbols are available

Binary number system
Binary Number System

  • Computers function in base 2, or the binary number system, where there are only two values


  • A combination of binary digit

  • The smallest possible unit of data a computer can recognize or use


  • A group of eight bits

Text codes
Text Codes



  • Unicode


  • The CPU is the computer’s “brain” that manipulates data

Cpu s two basic parts
CPU’s Two Basic Parts

  • Control unit

  • Arithmetic logic unit

Control unit
Control Unit

  • Manages all the computer’s resources

Arithmetic logic unit
Arithmetic Logic Unit

  • Performs the CPU’s arithmetic and logical operations

Machine cycle
Machine Cycle

  • The completed series of steps the CPU takes to execute an instruction

Machine cycle s two cycles
Machine Cycle’s Two Cycles

  • Instruction cycle

  • Execution cycle

Instruction cycle
Instruction Cycle

  • Fetching

  • Decoding

Execution cycle
Execution Cycle

  • Executing

  • Storing

Millions of instructions per second mips
Millions of Instructions Per Second (MIPS)

  • The CPU performance measurement


  • Also called pipeline processing

  • The control unit begins a new machine cycle before the current cycle is completed


  • Allows the CPU to store and retrieve data quickly

Two kinds of memory
Two Kinds of Memory

  • Read-only memory (ROM): nonvolatile

  • Random-access memory (RAM): volatile


  • ROM always holds the same data, for example the computer’s start-up instructions


  • RAM’s job is to hold programs and data while they are in use

  • RAM can change instantly

Other kinds of ram
Other Kinds of RAM

  • Dynamic RAM (DRAM)

  • DRAM Variations

  • Static RAM (SRAM)

Factors affecting processing speed
Factors Affecting Processing Speed

  • Registers

  • Memory and computing power

  • System clock

  • The bus

  • The databus

  • The address bus

  • Cache memory

Bus types
Bus Types

  • Industry standard architecture (ISA) bus

  • Local bus

  • Peripheral component interconnect (PCI) bus

  • Accelerated Graphics Port (AGP) bus

  • Universal Serial Bus (USB)

  • IEEE 1394 (FireWire)

Data transfer rate
Data Transfer Rate

  • The amount of data buses can transfer in a second

  • Measured in megabits per second (Mbps) or megabytes per second (MBps)

Cache memory
Cache memory

  • Speeds processing by storing frequently used data or instructions in its high-speed memory

Section 4a1
Section 4A

  • Transforming Data Into Information