Section 4a
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Section 4A. Introduction to Computers. Decimal Number System. Called base 10 because 10 symbols are available. Binary Number System. Computers function in base 2, or the binary number system, where there are only two values. Bit. A combination of binary digit

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Introduction to Computers

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Section 4a

Section 4A

Introduction to Computers


Decimal number system

Decimal Number System

  • Called base 10 because 10 symbols are available


Binary number system

Binary Number System

  • Computers function in base 2, or the binary number system, where there are only two values


Introduction to computers

Bit

  • A combination of binary digit

  • The smallest possible unit of data a computer can recognize or use


Introduction to computers

Byte

  • A group of eight bits


Text codes

Text Codes

  • EBCDIC

  • ASCII

  • Unicode


Introduction to computers

CPU

  • The CPU is the computer’s “brain” that manipulates data


Cpu s two basic parts

CPU’s Two Basic Parts

  • Control unit

  • Arithmetic logic unit


Control unit

Control Unit

  • Manages all the computer’s resources


Arithmetic logic unit

Arithmetic Logic Unit

  • Performs the CPU’s arithmetic and logical operations


Machine cycle

Machine Cycle

  • The completed series of steps the CPU takes to execute an instruction


Machine cycle s two cycles

Machine Cycle’s Two Cycles

  • Instruction cycle

  • Execution cycle


Instruction cycle

Instruction Cycle

  • Fetching

  • Decoding


Execution cycle

Execution Cycle

  • Executing

  • Storing


Millions of instructions per second mips

Millions of Instructions Per Second (MIPS)

  • The CPU performance measurement


Pipelining

Pipelining

  • Also called pipeline processing

  • The control unit begins a new machine cycle before the current cycle is completed


Memory

Memory

  • Allows the CPU to store and retrieve data quickly


Two kinds of memory

Two Kinds of Memory

  • Read-only memory (ROM): nonvolatile

  • Random-access memory (RAM): volatile


Introduction to computers

ROM

  • ROM always holds the same data, for example the computer’s start-up instructions


Introduction to computers

RAM

  • RAM’s job is to hold programs and data while they are in use

  • RAM can change instantly


Other kinds of ram

Other Kinds of RAM

  • Dynamic RAM (DRAM)

  • DRAM Variations

  • Static RAM (SRAM)


Factors affecting processing speed

Factors Affecting Processing Speed

  • Registers

  • Memory and computing power

  • System clock

  • The bus

  • The databus

  • The address bus

  • Cache memory


Bus types

Bus Types

  • Industry standard architecture (ISA) bus

  • Local bus

  • Peripheral component interconnect (PCI) bus

  • Accelerated Graphics Port (AGP) bus

  • Universal Serial Bus (USB)

  • IEEE 1394 (FireWire)


Data transfer rate

Data Transfer Rate

  • The amount of data buses can transfer in a second

  • Measured in megabits per second (Mbps) or megabytes per second (MBps)


Cache memory

Cache memory

  • Speeds processing by storing frequently used data or instructions in its high-speed memory


Section 4a1

Section 4A

  • Transforming Data Into Information


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