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Section 4A. Introduction to Computers. Decimal Number System. Called base 10 because 10 symbols are available. Binary Number System. Computers function in base 2, or the binary number system, where there are only two values. Bit. A combination of binary digit

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Introduction to Computers

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Section 4a

Section 4A

Introduction to Computers

Decimal number system

Decimal Number System

  • Called base 10 because 10 symbols are available

Binary number system

Binary Number System

  • Computers function in base 2, or the binary number system, where there are only two values

Introduction to computers


  • A combination of binary digit

  • The smallest possible unit of data a computer can recognize or use

Introduction to computers


  • A group of eight bits

Text codes

Text Codes



  • Unicode

Introduction to computers


  • The CPU is the computer’s “brain” that manipulates data

Cpu s two basic parts

CPU’s Two Basic Parts

  • Control unit

  • Arithmetic logic unit

Control unit

Control Unit

  • Manages all the computer’s resources

Arithmetic logic unit

Arithmetic Logic Unit

  • Performs the CPU’s arithmetic and logical operations

Machine cycle

Machine Cycle

  • The completed series of steps the CPU takes to execute an instruction

Machine cycle s two cycles

Machine Cycle’s Two Cycles

  • Instruction cycle

  • Execution cycle

Instruction cycle

Instruction Cycle

  • Fetching

  • Decoding

Execution cycle

Execution Cycle

  • Executing

  • Storing

Millions of instructions per second mips

Millions of Instructions Per Second (MIPS)

  • The CPU performance measurement



  • Also called pipeline processing

  • The control unit begins a new machine cycle before the current cycle is completed



  • Allows the CPU to store and retrieve data quickly

Two kinds of memory

Two Kinds of Memory

  • Read-only memory (ROM): nonvolatile

  • Random-access memory (RAM): volatile

Introduction to computers


  • ROM always holds the same data, for example the computer’s start-up instructions

Introduction to computers


  • RAM’s job is to hold programs and data while they are in use

  • RAM can change instantly

Other kinds of ram

Other Kinds of RAM

  • Dynamic RAM (DRAM)

  • DRAM Variations

  • Static RAM (SRAM)

Factors affecting processing speed

Factors Affecting Processing Speed

  • Registers

  • Memory and computing power

  • System clock

  • The bus

  • The databus

  • The address bus

  • Cache memory

Bus types

Bus Types

  • Industry standard architecture (ISA) bus

  • Local bus

  • Peripheral component interconnect (PCI) bus

  • Accelerated Graphics Port (AGP) bus

  • Universal Serial Bus (USB)

  • IEEE 1394 (FireWire)

Data transfer rate

Data Transfer Rate

  • The amount of data buses can transfer in a second

  • Measured in megabits per second (Mbps) or megabytes per second (MBps)

Cache memory

Cache memory

  • Speeds processing by storing frequently used data or instructions in its high-speed memory

Section 4a1

Section 4A

  • Transforming Data Into Information

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