# Introduction to Computers - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Section 4A. Introduction to Computers. Decimal Number System. Called base 10 because 10 symbols are available. Binary Number System. Computers function in base 2, or the binary number system, where there are only two values. Bit. A combination of binary digit

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Introduction to Computers

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Section 4A

## Introduction to Computers

### Decimal Number System

• Called base 10 because 10 symbols are available

### Binary Number System

• Computers function in base 2, or the binary number system, where there are only two values

### Bit

• A combination of binary digit

• The smallest possible unit of data a computer can recognize or use

### Byte

• A group of eight bits

• EBCDIC

• ASCII

• Unicode

### CPU

• The CPU is the computer’s “brain” that manipulates data

### CPU’s Two Basic Parts

• Control unit

• Arithmetic logic unit

### Control Unit

• Manages all the computer’s resources

### Arithmetic Logic Unit

• Performs the CPU’s arithmetic and logical operations

### Machine Cycle

• The completed series of steps the CPU takes to execute an instruction

### Machine Cycle’s Two Cycles

• Instruction cycle

• Execution cycle

• Fetching

• Decoding

• Executing

• Storing

### Millions of Instructions Per Second (MIPS)

• The CPU performance measurement

### Pipelining

• Also called pipeline processing

• The control unit begins a new machine cycle before the current cycle is completed

### Memory

• Allows the CPU to store and retrieve data quickly

### Two Kinds of Memory

• Random-access memory (RAM): volatile

### ROM

• ROM always holds the same data, for example the computer’s start-up instructions

### RAM

• RAM’s job is to hold programs and data while they are in use

• RAM can change instantly

### Other Kinds of RAM

• Dynamic RAM (DRAM)

• DRAM Variations

• Static RAM (SRAM)

### Factors Affecting Processing Speed

• Registers

• Memory and computing power

• System clock

• The bus

• The databus

• Cache memory

### Bus Types

• Industry standard architecture (ISA) bus

• Local bus

• Peripheral component interconnect (PCI) bus

• Accelerated Graphics Port (AGP) bus

• Universal Serial Bus (USB)

• IEEE 1394 (FireWire)

### Data Transfer Rate

• The amount of data buses can transfer in a second

• Measured in megabits per second (Mbps) or megabytes per second (MBps)

### Cache memory

• Speeds processing by storing frequently used data or instructions in its high-speed memory

### Section 4A

• Transforming Data Into Information