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Construction, Installation and Commissioning of a High-Efficiency and High-Resolution Straw Tube Tracker for the Experiment. Introduction B-physics at LHCb The LHCb experiment The LHCb Outer Tracker Design and construction Installation and commissioning. Fabian Jansen (Nikhef)

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slide1
Construction, Installation and Commissioning of a High-Efficiency and High-Resolution Straw Tube Tracker for the Experiment
  • Introduction
    • B-physics at LHCb
    • The LHCb experiment
  • The LHCb Outer Tracker
    • Design and construction
    • Installation and commissioning

Fabian Jansen (Nikhef)

On behalf of the LHCb Outer Tracker group

11th Pisa meeting on advanced detectors

La Biodola, Isola d’Elba (Italy), May 24-30 2009

b physics
B-physics

Vtb

Vtb

rare decay B0 → K* μ+μ-

B0

K*

b

s

new physics?

μ+

μ-

  • The physics of hadrons containing b-quarks
  • CP-violation (Charge-Parity asymmetry) with B-mesons
    • measurable through B/anti-B mixing and decay
  • New physics with rare B decays
    • B decays with small conventional

branching fractions involving loop diagrams

    • New physics may contribute at the

same scale as conventional physics

  • Nobel prize 2008:
  • spontaneous symmetry breaking +
  • at least three families of quarks = possible CP violation

B mixing

11th Pisa Meeting on Advanced Detectors

b physics at lhcb
B-physics at LHCb

b

  • The LHC will act as a B factory with large b-quark production rate
    • σbb ~ 500μb for pp collisions at s = 14TeV
  • B hadrons are produced predominantly forward/backward
  • LHCb
    • forward spectrometer (10-300 mrad)
    • dedicated to B physics
    • “modest” luminosity L~ 2 1032cm-2s-1
    • expected 1012 bb/year (107 sec)

b

p

p

250mrad

collision

100 mb

230 mb

p

p

11th Pisa Meeting on Advanced Detectors

lhcb detector overview
LHCb detector: overview
  • One-arm forward spectrometer: subdetectors cascade in beam direction

proton beam

proton beam

collision point

~1 cm

B

11th Pisa Meeting on Advanced Detectors

lhcb detector ve rtex lo cater
LHCb detector: vertexlocater
  • contains the pp-collision point
  • precise determination of primary and secondary vertices (B lifetime)

~1 cm

B

11th Pisa Meeting on Advanced Detectors

lhcb detector rich1 rich2
LHCb detector: RICH1,RICH2
  • Particle IDentification; kaon-pion separation

11th Pisa Meeting on Advanced Detectors

lhcb detector calorimeter system
LHCb detector: calorimeter system
  • particle identification; electron, photon, hadron
  • trigger (at 40MHz)

11th Pisa Meeting on Advanced Detectors

lhcb detector muon system
LHCb detector: muon system
  • muon tracking
  • trigger (at 40MHz)

11th Pisa Meeting on Advanced Detectors

lhcb detector tracking stations
LHCb detector: tracking stations
  • charged particle momentum determination
  • TT before magnet, Inner and Outer Tracker after magnet

11th Pisa Meeting on Advanced Detectors

outer tracker performance requirements
Outer tracker performance requirements
  • High speed
    • 25ns bunch crossing cycle
  • Momentum resolution (Δp/p) better than 0.5% (2-100GeV tracks)
    • precise (B-)mass reconstruction
    • =► spatial resolution less than 200μm
  • Occupancy below 10%
    • efficient track reconstruction
  • High efficiency
    • efficient B reconstruction

beam pipe and Inner Tracker

expected J/ψ mass distribution

OT expected occupancy:

Average = 4.5%

Hottest region = 9%

σ=11MeV!

11th Pisa Meeting on Advanced Detectors

outer tracker module design and production
Outer Tracker module design and production

00

-50

+50

00

The Outer Tracker consists of 3 stations ~0.5m apart

  • Station
    • 2 support frames (C-frames) mounted vertically

with 2 layers of detector modules

    • =► 4 layers of modules with orientation 00,+50,-50,00
    • Every C-frame is in two halves that can be moved

horizontally in and out around the beam pipe

  • Layer
    • 14 type F modules; full height
    • 4 type S modules; half height outside the hot region

Type F

S2

S3

S1

Inner Tracker

2400 mm

2900 mm

3070 mm

11th Pisa Meeting on Advanced Detectors

outer tracker module design and production1
Outer Tracker module design and production
  • Module
    • 2 staggered layers of 64 straw tubes
    • split in electrically independent upper and lower sections with Front End electronics on both sections
    • 1module: X/X0 = 0.37%!
  • Straw
    • 5mm radius
    • 25μm anode wire at 1550V
    • Ar(70%)/CO2(30%)

4800 mm

340 mm

module top view

aluminum laminated kapton wound on carbon doped kapton-XC

11th Pisa Meeting on Advanced Detectors

outer tracker module design and production2
Outer Tracker module design and production
  • Detector Module mass
  • construction ~ assembly of:
  • - 56,000 straws
  • 56,000 wires
  • 200,000 soldered joints
  • 620 panels
  • 185 F and 124 S Modules
  • 2004-2005: OT module production
  • Quality assurance during production
    • wire tension (<7%)
    • wire position (<100μm)
    • dark current (<10nA at 1600V)
  • Quality assurance after production
    • gas tightness (<1mbar/minute)
    • dark current (<10nA at 1600V and Ar(70%)/CO2(30%) )
  • Detector response to 90Sr source; full scan (every cm) of all OT modules
  • Module production summary
    • dead channels: disconnected shorts (0.6‰)
    • “noisy” channels: high dark current (0.7‰), often cured after HV training
  • Cracow: all straw-support panels
  • Warsaw: 124 type S modules
  • Heidelberg: 62 type F modules
  • Nikhef: 130 type F modules

LHCb note: lhcb-2004-078

11th Pisa Meeting on Advanced Detectors

ot front end electronics design and production
OT Front End electronics design and production
  • HV circuit board
    • 330 pF capacitors decouple signal from HV
    • embedded capacitors reduce leakage currents
  • ASDBLR amplifier
    • discriminate signal against threshold
    • high speed through elimination of long ion tail by shaping and baseline restoring of signal; dead time ~20ns
    • low noise through differential logic swing
    • low threshold =► good efficiency & resolution
  • OTIS time-to-digital converter
    • 25ns LHC bunch clock into 64 TDC bins
    • incorporate up to three BX drift time
  • GOL
    • Transfer of data of 128 channels

(+headers) via optical fiber at 1.6Gb/s

See poster: The FE Electronics of the LHCb Straw Tube Tracker

11th Pisa Meeting on Advanced Detectors

ot front end electronics design and production1
OT Front End electronics design and production
  • 2005-2008 OT FE electronics production
  • All components tested and selected individually before assembly
  • All FE boxes tested after assembly on
    • threshold characteristics
    • timing behavior
    • noise and cross talk
    • trigger latency response

threshold scan

rejected components

insensitive channels

ASDBLR’s replaced

linearity scan

All Front End electronics components with bad characteristics/behavior/response were replaced!

nonlinear channel

OTIS replaced

LHCb note: lhcb-2007-122

11th Pisa Meeting on Advanced Detectors

test beam at desy
Test beam at Desy
  • Beginning of 2005: beam test at Desy
  • First four half-length OT modules
  • Final prototype FE electronics
  • Efficiency
  • Resolution
  • Noise & Cross Talk
  • High Voltage
  • Amplifier threshold
  • Position along straw

VS

LHCb Note: lhcb-2005-076

11th Pisa Meeting on Advanced Detectors

test beam results 1
Test beam results (1)

2.45 mm

2.45 mm

RT-relation

efficiency profile

Drift time (ns)

Efficiency

r (mm)

results for 1550V HV, 800mV threshold

r (mm)

next slide  resolution and efficiency for different HV and amplifier threshold

11th Pisa Meeting on Advanced Detectors

test beam results 2
Test beam results (2)

Good efficiency and resolution for HV > 1550V

ε 98%

σ 200 µm

  • Corresponds to Gain > 50,000

0.6

Resolution (mm)

0.2

0

1400

100

Efficiency

0

1200

1400

1550

HV(V)

11th Pisa Meeting on Advanced Detectors

outer tracker module installation 1
Outer tracker module installation (1)

bridge

beam pipe

  • module support frame (C-frame)
  • 2x9 detector modules
  • 4x9 FE boxes
  • cooling, gas
  • Low Voltage, High Voltage, etc.

11th Pisa Meeting on Advanced Detectors

outer tracker module installation 2
Outer Tracker module installation (2)
  • 2006-2007: Assembly of modules into C-frames and installation of C-frames in detector
  • Before assembly of modules, C-frames tested for
    • gas tightness of gas distribution system <1mbar/minute at 10mbar CO2
    • High Voltage leakage currents <10nA/RMS<1nA
    • Low Voltage connections OK
    • optical fiber attenuation <30dBm
  • After assembly of modules into C-frame, modules tested for
    • gas tightness: <1mbar/minute & matching production
    • High Voltage leakage currents <100nA/channel at 3 minutes 1.8kV-CO2
  • Functionality test with 55Fe source
    • >2700 straws (~½OT) individually tested
    • 13 dead channels; 11 known at production
  • 2008: Installation of FE electronics

LHCb note lhcb-2008-033

11th Pisa Meeting on Advanced Detectors

outer tracker commissioning overview
Outer Tracker commissioning overview

this is a snap shot,

work is ongoing!

ok

FE not installed

I2C problem

BxID mismatch

QPLL not locked

other problem

optical link problem

desynchronisation

all TELL1 OK

11th Pisa Meeting on Advanced Detectors

data taking 1
Data taking (1)
  • During the last months OT was taking data in global LHCb commissioning
    • random and calibration triggers (test pulse possibility)
    • cosmic muons triggered by CALO/MUON
    • “media day” (beam!)

media day

11th Pisa Meeting on Advanced Detectors

data taking 2
Data taking (2)
  • Look at various type of data with various goals
    • Random trigger for noise, FE debugging, …
    • Calibration test pulse trigger for threshold characteristics, timing behavior,…
    • Cosmics trigger for
      • t0 calibration/time alignment
      • RT calibration
      • Alignment
      • track reconstr.

cosmics event

Next slides: first t0 & RT

calibrations with cosmics

11th Pisa Meeting on Advanced Detectors

cosmics data 1
Cosmics data (1)
  • Use calorimeter to trigger cosmic muons
  • Correct for downstream (early OT hits) or upstream (late OT hits)
  • Correct for Time Of Flight and wire propagation time

TDC = tcosmic + tTOF + tdrift + tprop + t0

11th Pisa Meeting on Advanced Detectors

cosmic data 2
Cosmic data (2)
  • t0 calibration with cosmics: a first analysis

Faulty CLK fan-outs,

now replaced!

module t0 (ns)

module

<3ns variation in t0’s!

module average t0 (ns)

11th Pisa Meeting on Advanced Detectors

cosmic data 3
Cosmic data (3)
  • RT relation with cosmics: a first analysis

RT-relation in beam test

RT-relation from cosmics

calibration with cosmics ongoing work!

11th Pisa Meeting on Advanced Detectors

summary
Summary
  • LHCb will be ready to collect data with its full detector as LHC turns on:
    • Test of Charge-Parity asymmetry
    • probe rare B decays
  • Tracking system performance of crucial importance
    • Outer Tracker consisting of straw-tubes modules
    • All OT modules and electronics built and tested
      • Quality Assurance during production
      • Beam tests
  • All OT modules and electronics installed and re-tested in situ
    • Commissioning well advanced
      • Electronics debugging
      • Cosmic trigger for OT commissioning: track reconstruction, T0 and RT calibration, alignment, etc

Beam for B physics

11th Pisa Meeting on Advanced Detectors

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